Thursday, February 20, 2020
THE BLIND ASSASSIN BOOK BY MAGARET ATWOOD (Book Report) - Essay Example This sense that somehow Iris was once whole and is now damaged is communicated, when she calls herself Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦a brick-strewn vacant lot where some important building used to stand.Ã¢â¬ (Atwood 43)1 It becomes clear later that her ruin is of her own making, brought about through her deliberate blindness towards her own motivations that underlay the choices she made. Thus she says: I did believe, at first, that I only wanted justice. I thought my heart was pure. We do like to have such good opinions of our own motives when weÃ¢â¬â¢re about to do something harmful, to someone else. (497) In old age, Iris is painfully aware of at least some of her motives. However, she is still not entirely honest because it is quite clear that she knew Ã¢â¬Ëback thenÃ¢â¬â¢ as well. Thus Ã¢â¬Å"we do like to have such good opinions of our own motivesÃ¢â¬ (497) communicates a sense of Ã¢â¬ËdeliberateÃ¢â¬â¢ self-deception. Her primary punishment is reserved for Laura, for the role she played in the lives of Richard and Alex and perhaps also because she was Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢. She also vindictively destroyed her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s career. What was it she wanted? Nothing much. Just a memorial of some kind. But what is a memorial, when you come right down to it, but a commemoration of wounds endured? Endured and resented. Without memory there is no revenge.Ã¢â¬ (508) Revenge then was what Iris had wanted all along. This manifests itself also clearly in the spiteful way in which she communicates AlexÃ¢â¬â¢s death to Laura. Ã¢â¬Å"Laura, I hate to tell you this, I said, but whatever it was you did, it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t save Alex. Alex is dead.Ã¢â¬ (488) This Ã¢â¬ËwhateverÃ¢â¬â¢ Laura did to save Alex was giving in to RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual demands and Iris was fully aware of LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËmartyrÃ¢â¬â¢ mindset. Her sister had been a heavy burden to the young Iris and once, after Laura tried to sacrifice herself for her dead mother, Iris had been close to Ã¢â¬Ëletting goÃ¢â¬â¢. Now destroying LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Family centred care - Essay Example The author has rightly presented that the family plays a vital role in the nursing of the patient. Since the discovery of this fact, there has been vast interest on the topic of family-centered care. For purposes of establishing the role of the nurse in family centered care, the essay has its basis on a case study. The patient, Joan, who is in hospital, has been diagnosed with AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. It is evident that she has a family, a husband. In planning the discharge of this patient, the nurse has to consider a number of issues. Some of these issues are the feelings that her husband has, and the fact that he may be unable to cope with her condition, managing JoanÃ¢â¬â¢s agitation, assessing the risk that the disease brings about to Joan. In addition, the nurse should consider the stress that JoanÃ¢â¬â¢s disease puts on the relationship between the members of the family and the possibility that the family might have limited knowledge on the disease and may need guidance on how to cope. The paper will focus on four major topics with regard to family centered care. The first of these is the risk posed by AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. Secondly, the paper will look into the issue of the stress that JoanÃ¢â¬â¢s sickness could cause on the relationship between members of her family. The third topic entails the possible reasons for JoanÃ¢â¬â¢s agitation and the best way to manage it. The last issue to be discussed is the feeling that the family members may have towards Joan, and with regard to her condition and the part, they play in caring for her.... This kind of care, the institute adds, is applicable to patients of all age groups, and is recommended in all settings that deal with health care. This would mean that for the sake of quick recuperation of patients, the family would have to be heavily involved in the process of nursing, while acquiring relevant and vital information on what steps to take from the nurse in charge of their sick relatives. In the case study, Joan has dementia. Joan is set for discharge from the health facility where she has been. Family centered care begins from within the hospital. This means that the family is also heavily involved in the decision to discharge. At this point, the family needs to get reassurance that Joan is in a stable enough condition to go home. In addition, the dependent state of the patient warrants their involvement for purposes of establishing whom her primary caregivers will be and where she will be living (Davidson et al. 2007). Before the nurse releases her into the care of h er family, it is important that they come up with a family care plan that will aid in assessing the situation at home (Gulanick & Myers 2011). An example of the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s family care plan is as shown. Table 1: Family care Plan for Joan with dementia Family Problem Goal of care Objectives of Care Intervention Measures Method of nurse-family contact Resources Evaluation -little knowledge on risks posed by AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s . - possible source of stress for family - patient agitated - To put the patients at ease -Prevention of self-harm by patient Enabling the family to empathize with the situation and learn the understand the sickness -provide health teachings to the family on AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s
Monday, January 27, 2020
Principles of Construction Management Contents (Jump to) 1. GulickÃ¢â¬â¢ 7 Functions 2. Fayol 3. Management Theories 4. Challenges Managing People in Construction 5. Conclusion 6. Bibliography Word Count 2070 1. GulickÃ¢â¬â¢ 7 Functions In 1937, social scientists Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick (Papers on the Science of Administration) describe seven Ã¢â¬Å"major activities and duties of any higher authority or organisationÃ¢â¬ . Since then, the acronym POSDCORB has been used to describe the 7 functions of managers: This essentially refers to the various steps or stages involved in a typical administrative process. POSDCORB stands for: Planning: This essentially refers to establishing a broad outline of the work to be completed and the procedures required to implement them. Organising: Organising involves establishing a structure of authority, formally classifying, defining and synchronising the various sub-processes or subdivisions of the work to be done. Staffing: This involves recruiting and selecting the right candidates for the job and facilitating their orientation and training whilst maintaining quality in their work and their environment. Directing: This comprises of continual decision making and delegating structured instructions and orders to execute them. Coordinating: This basically refers to arranging and piecing together the various components of the work. Reporting: Reporting involves regularly updating knowledge about the progress or the work related activities. The information dissemination can be through records or inspection. Budgeting: Budgeting involves all the activities that fall under Auditing, Accounting, and Control. POSDCORB generally fits into the Classical Management movement, being classified as an element of scientific management. GulickÃ¢â¬â¢s POSDCORB principles were instrumental in highlighting the theory of span of control, or limits on the number of people one manager could supervise, as well as unity of command to the fields of management and public administration. For Luther Gulick, the central problem of administration was determining how to achieve the coordination and control necessary to accomplish organisational objectives. His solution was to establish a strong chief executive to counter the divisive aspects of increasing specialisation and division of labour. 2. Fayol Gulick and Urwick built their ideas on the earlier 14 Principles of Management by Henri Fayol in his book General and Industrial Management (1918). Fayol defined theory as Ã¢â¬Å"a collection of principles, rules, methods, and procedures tried and checked by general experienceÃ¢â¬ (Fayol 1918) Fayols 14 Principles Division of Work Authority and Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest Remuneration of Personnel Centralisation Scalar Chain (line of authority with peer level communication) Order Equity Stability of Tenure of Personnel Initiative Esprit de Corps FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on Gulick is evident in the 5 elements of management discussed in his book. Fayol clearly believed personal effort and team dynamics were part of an Ã¢â¬Å"idealÃ¢â¬ organisation. Planning Ã¢â¬â examining the future and drawing up plan which areas of action Organising Ã¢â¬â building up the structure (labour and material) of the undertaking Command- maintaining activity among the personnel Co-ordination Ã¢â¬â unifying and harmonising activities and efforts. Control Ã¢â¬â seeing everything that occurs conforms with policies and practices. FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s five principle roles (Plan, Organise, Command, Co-ordinate, and Control) of management are still actively practiced today. The idea of giving authority with responsibility is also widely commented on and is well practiced, though his principles of Ã¢â¬Å"unity of commandÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unity of directionÃ¢â¬ are not adhered to in the structure of choice in many of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s companies. 3.0 Management Theories There are several important management theories which basically classified are as follows: The Scientific Management School such as the works of Frederick W. Taylor and Lillian GilbrethÃ¢â¬â¢s motion study, The Classical Organisational Theory School such as the works of Henri FayolÃ¢â¬â¢s views on administration, and Max WeberÃ¢â¬â¢s idealised bureaucracy, The Behavioural School with the work of Elton Mayo and his associates. Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz and Weihrich 1990, p. 4). Theories provide an understanding of what we encounter. A theory provides criteria for what is relevant. Theories enable us to communicate effectively and develop more and more complex relationships with other people. Theories make it possible to keep learning about our professions with continuous development. Management Theories Since the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s management theories and scientific approaches have been produced by a number of people such as Henri Fayol, Fredrick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Henry Gantt and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. These people introduced the classical and scientific approaches and over the years developed these principles through their working careers. These styles have changed, merged and stayed the same depending of the person implementing their ideas and the type of company they work for. The traditional classical approach started around the beginning of the 19th century and mainly focused on efficiency together with bureaucratic, scientific and administrative styles of management. The bureaucratic style of management tends to rely heavily on a structure of guidelines such as rules and procedures. While the scientific approach to management mainly focuses on Ã¢â¬Å"the best way to do a jobÃ¢â¬ and the administrative style really emphasises the flow of information in the operation of the organisation. Later towards the end of the 20th century the empowerment style was developed and as a result helped give the employee a sense of responsibility. This was done by offloading some of managements work onto the shop floor and turn gave the employee a sense achievement and direction at work. Modern Theories of Management, Human Relations Douglas McGregor (1906-1964): Who is best known for his formulation of two sets of assumptions- Theory X and Theory Y. McGregor argued that managers should shift their traditional views of man and work (which he termed Theory X) to a new humane views of man and work (which he termed Theory Y). According to McGregor, A theory X attitudes man was lazy and work was bad were both pessimistic and counterproductive. Theory X assumes that people have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, and need to be closely supervised to work effectively. Theory Y, proposed that man wanted to work and work was good. Theory Y offers a positive view, assuming that people can exercise self-discipline, accept responsibility and consider work to be as natural as rest and play. McGregor believed that Theory Y encompassed the true nature of workers and should guide management practice. Ã Ã Fig 1. Douglas McGregor Theory X and Y. Scientific management Ã¢â¬â This type of management was introduced by Frederick Taylor and focuses on the worker and machine relationship and as a result of this approach helps increase productivity by increasing the efficiency of the production processes and as a result of his research, Ford Motor Co. embraced this style of management. This type is also designed so that each member of staff has a specified, well controlled task that can be performed as instructed. Time and motion Ã¢â¬â Frank and Lillian Gilbreth developed this method by focusing on identifying the individual motions of a task. These motions were combined to form both the methods of each operation and the time it took to carry out each task. They believed it was possible to design and time the method of each task in advance, rather than relying upon observation of trial and error. Administrative Management Ã¢â¬â Henry Gantt developed the Gantt chart, which is used for scheduling overlapping tasks over a period of time. Gantt charts have since become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a working project and break down the structure so they can be understood by all. GanttÃ¢â¬â¢s management approach focused on motivational schemes and as such emphasised heavily on rewarding staff for good work as opposed to disciplining them over poor work. He also looked at the quality of management skills in building effective industrial organisations. Motivation Ã¢â¬â Abraham Maslow developed the human relations and behaviour theory in the 1950/60s by distinguishing between what motivates people to do certain activities. His theory suggested that people had to satisfy one level of need before moving onto the next and this in turn resulted in what ultimately motivates people / staff. This is shown in the pyramid illustration as shown below. Fig 2 . MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of Needs Empowerment Ã¢â¬â This style of management is a modern theory and was developed in the early 90Ã¢â¬â¢s and basically gives the employee a sense of power at work. This is carried out by the employee being authorised by their superior to carry out certain duties without the need to seek approval from above. This type gives the employee a sense of responsibility and achievement while helping to reduce the workload of their boss and in turn cuts down the amount of work the manager has to do as they have delegated certain responsibilities. 4. Challenges Managing People in Construction As highlighted in numerous government and academic reports (Latham, 1994; Egan, 1998, Fairclough, 2002), the construction industry is a sector of the economy which faces many challenges, especially in terms of performance. There are many challenges facing a construction manager. Many challenges are a result of construction operations, while others are a result of indirect activities. A number of challenges are not construction related issues but must be addressed and managed by the construction manager. These issues include workforce/labour considerations, safety, time, and the changing nature of construction work. The construction industry in general is a labour intensive industry and the role of construction manager is to manage people in a strategic and tactical way. One way of managing people would be a classical theory on human behaviour / relations such as Elton MayoÃ¢â¬â¢s on motivation, as a group working dynamics will always have an impact on the projects performance. The term group working dynamics refers to the attitudes, energy and interaction of its groupÃ¢â¬â¢s members and leaders. The groups working dynamics will always be dependent on the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the project depending on the coordinated efforts of staff working together as a team. Human resource is the most valuable asset in construction industry. Human resource practices are generally concerned with gaining value through increased skills, productivity, contribution, and cost consciousness and productivity are the important factors affecting the overall success of any construction project. Human resource management is the process of finding out what people want from their work, what an organization wants from its employees, and then matching these two sets of needs. Construction projects depend on the knowledge and skills of planning and executing the work. The quality of this most important resource: people, which is what differentiates one team or company from another. Having talented management on board to guide and direct a project is paramount. Having the right balance of skilled and unskilled workers to perform the work is a basic necessity. Finding and recruiting sufficient numbers of skilled, talented people is becoming increasing difficult. There are many reasons this is a problem. One of which is construction is generally viewed as being one of the least desirable industries in which to work. By nature construction is dangerous, dirty, hard work. Other industries out there offer preferred work environments that are cleaner, safer, and generally more desirable. Consequently, there is a severe shortage of talented people willing to work in construction. In order to maximise long term performance, it is important to provide the training necessary to enlighten your workforce. Leadership must be developed among the workforce to aid in effectively coordinating work activities by providing communication links between management and labour. This provides the opportunity for upward mobility and gives motivated people the chance to advance professionally. Empowerment leads to high levels of commitment, enthusiasm, self-motivation, productivity, and innovation. Benefits of this include feelings of appreciation, belonging, and heightened self-worth. Empowerment enables employees to make decisions for which they are accountable and responsible. Empowerment of workforce is one of the keys to improving construction performance. 5. Conclusion Ã¢â¬â The management theories that have been discussed, important as they are, have to be translated in practice by construction managers, For practicality, all construction managers must develop three sets of skills, namely; conceptual, technical, and human ( Fleet and Perterson 1994, p. 25). A good construction manager should also be able to see members of the organisation as human beings who have needs and psychological feelings and emotions. The development of management theory involves the development of concepts, principles, and techniques. There are many theories about management, and each one ad to our knowledge of what managers should do. Each one has its own characteristics and advantages as well as limitations. The operational, or management process combines each and systematically integrates them. The styles of management best suited to construction are a blend of all described above whilst trying to motivate staff using both the autocratic and democratic approaches because of the need to be one type of boss with one employee and another with somebody else. This is extremely prevalent when dealing with health and safety where and autocratic authoritative style is a prerequisite to the success of reducing the risk of accidents on site. Therefore a manager who makes definitive attempts to translate theory into practice is more likely to increase productivity than a manager who chooses to use the trial and error method of management. 6. Bibliography Egan, J (1998) Rethinking construction: report of the construction task force on the scope for improving the quality and efficiency of UK construction, DETR, London. Fairclough, J., (2002), Rethinking construction innovation and research: A review of government RD policies and practices, Department of Trade and Industry, London Fayol, H. (1949). General and Industrial Management. (C. Storrs, Trans.). London: Sir Isaac Pitman Sons, LTD. (Original work published 1918) Fryer, B. (2004) The Practice of Construction Management, 4th Ed, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Gulick, L. H. (1936). Notes on the Theory of Organization. L. Gulick L. Urwick (Eds.), Papers on the Science of Administration. Koontz Harold and Weihrich Heinz (1990) Essentials of Management, Fifth Edition, McGraw-Hill. Latham, M., (1994), Constructing the team, HMSO, London Oxley, R. And Poskitt, J. (2007) Management Techniques Applied to the Construction Industry, 5th Ed, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Winch, G.M. (2008). Managing Construction Projects, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Websites Figure 1 taken from Beta Codex Network (2008) The Way People Are [Online] available from http://www.betacodex.org/de/node/508 [Accessed February 2014] Figure 2 taken from Maslows hierarchy of needs [Online] available from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslows_hierarchy_of_needs [Accessed February 2014] S150-943
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Memento (2000) is a movie directed by Christopher Nolan that follows the life of Leonard, a man who, after an accident, suffers from short-term memory loss. When Lenny tries to save his wife from a possible rape, he hits his head on the floor damaging the way his brain functions, losing his capacity to create new memories. Every action of the film is set around a single objective; the relentless pursuit of the alleged murderer of LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s wife.In order to be able to follow up the mystery, Lenny has developed a system where he writes up notes to himself, takes pictures of important people and events, and, most importantly, tattoos his body with important Ã¢â¬Å"factsÃ¢â¬ to remember clues as he tracks his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s murderer. LennyÃ¢â¬â¢s tattoos are extremely important in Memento (2000) once they provide a memory trigger for the protagonist, building up his feelings of anger and revenge; they are key in character development and essential for the framework story.Lenny Ã¢â¬â¢s tattoos are a memory source for the protagonist, allowing him to remember the murder and building up mixed emotions regarding the case. The character has different tattoos in the front part of his body representing what he believes are facts and key pieces on the murder of his wife. One of them in particular, located on his chest and written backwards says: Ã¢â¬Å"John G. raped and murdered my wifeÃ¢â¬ . LennyÃ¢â¬â¢s tattoos not only helps the protagonist remember his goal, to catch and kill whoever it was who hurt his wife, but also feeds his feelings of revenge and anger towards the killer.When Lenny believes he has uncovered Teddy as being the killer of his wife, for example, he quickly catches sight of his tattoo establishing a casual connection that motivates him to go after Teddy and kill him. Lenny has a visual memory, even though he must relearn daily who he has met and what he has learned since the incident, he still finds strength and is encouraged by the pow er of his tattoos to keep looking for John G. In the movie, tattoos have hidden meanings and help reveal and develop the character.One in particular, the Ã¢â¬Å"Remember Sammy JankinsÃ¢â¬ on LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s hand, provides a miniature of the movie as a whole, as it has multiple meanings. Leonard believes that the tattoo is there to remind him that unlike Sammy, who has the same condition as him, he has a system and can therefore, control his Ã¢â¬ËdiseaseÃ¢â¬â¢. However, further in the movie we discover yet another hidden meaning in the tattoo. Sammy has never existed the way Leonard believes, in fact, the tattoo is a reminder that Lenny lies to himself, Ã¢â¬Å"not only the fiction of the cautionary tale of Sammy Jankins, but also of his inability to tell when people are lyingÃ¢â¬ (Heuser, 2011).The tattoo represents LennyÃ¢â¬â¢s lies and struggle to believe on what he wants to see as the truth, it unwinds a closer understanding of the protagonist giving meaning to the mo vie. Tattoos are essential for the flow and understanding of the story. They are introduced without many explanations, throughout the movie; however, different events and flashbacks allow the viewer to have a closer understanding of them. The viewer first discovers the various tattoos that cover LennyÃ¢â¬â¢s body as he undresses in front of a mirror.In the same scene, Ã¢â¬Å"medium, close-up and point of view shots fragment LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s body into readable tattooed statements which align the spectatorÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge with LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of being in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Molloy, 2010). The viewer starts to slowly become familiar with the Ã¢â¬Å"factsÃ¢â¬ tattooed on the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s body and connect each tattoo to each other, making sense and framing the story. LeonardÃ¢â¬â¢s tattoos are essential in the progress of the framework story in Memento (2000), it is key in character development and it is a source of memory trigger for the protagonist.Leonard lies to himself, and his tattoos are simple excuses for him to believe on what he wants to be the truth, embracing his feelings of anger and revenge. Because he is covered in tattoos, Ã¢â¬Å"his subjectivity is made obvious, whereas culture and memories are literally inscribed onto himÃ¢â¬ (Blake, 2004); additionally, the lastingness of tattooing is what helps trap Leonard in his limitless search for his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s murderer.No matter what happens, Lenny wakes up every day, facing the Ã¢â¬Å"factsÃ¢â¬ and goes off on his search. Therefore, tattooing his body helps Leonard accept the murder and enhances his feelings of anger influencing his unstoppable search for revenge. Leonard is a locus of signs and his tattoos are important in the development of the story, making the final connection to what is believed to be the truth and the actual truth, reinforcing character development as well as the spectatorÃ¢â¬â¢s identification with Lenny.Reference: Blake, L. (2004). Snapshots of M emento: Angles of Interpretation. George Washinton University. Heuser, D. (2011). Memento Ã¢â¬â What was this movie about again? Retrieved from: http://www. davidheuser. com/Memento. html (Feb 22, 2012). Todd, Jennifer (producer) & Nolan, Christopher (director). (2000). Memento. [Motion Picture]. (Available from Helkon, USA). Molloy, C. (2010). Memento. Adinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ?
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Introduction The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s code of ethics serves as a guide to its employees when making difficult decisions. Ethics helps professionals with their actions and practices that are directed to improve the welfare of people in an ethical way (Fremgen, 2009). An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and mission statement also help its employees make ethical decisions. The Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) organization is the national public health organization that is committed to protect the health and safety of our nation. CDCÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement focuses on to protect the health and safety of our communities through prevention strategies and control of disease. The mission statement motivates the employees to do their best to prevent diseases and infection. The code of ethics provides guidance to ensure that CDC employees avoid situations that could violate ethics law (CDC, 2013). The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement and culture reflect its ethical values. Organizat ionÃ¢â¬â¢s Goals and how they are tied to its ethical principles. The organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are to provide protection for our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s health and safety. The CDC has pledged to treat all human beings with dignity, honesty, and respect. They have also pledged to provide an environment for positive personal growth and integrity. The CDC provides employment for over 17,000 employees and they work to provide a diverse work environment where everyone is treated equally, respectfully, and with human dignity. The ethical principles tied to the organizational goals are autonomy and integrity. Everyone deserves to be treated with respect, and everyone deserves the truth. The CDC works to provide the most truthful information regarding disease, both treatment and prevention. They are using new technology to make access to information easier, as well as research becoming more scientific and in depth. It is important to the CDC that everyone in ourÃ nation is provided with the most up to date information. OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s role and importance of the ethical values The CDC organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s role is paramount to the continued health of this nation. The CDC has responsibilities toward everyone with in this country to provide education and protection about health and disease prevention. From an ethical stand point the CDC uses the theory of utilitarianism which is basically doing the most good for the greatest number of people. With the CDC, a team of nurses, doctors and scientists do their best day in and day out to do oversee the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s ongoing health hazards by providing proven research and constant breakthroughs to the public. Also with the CDC being a federally funded agency under the department of health and human services, the healthcare organization must practice ethical behaviors with one which is justice Ã¢â¬Å"Fairness in all our actions with other people. It means that we must carefully analyze how to balance our behavior and be fair to all. Justice implies that the same rules will apply to everyone (Fremgen, 2009).Ã¢â¬ With their use of technological advancements no single person or persons are given more or less information and or protection from illnesses or disabilities. The other must be responsibility, responsibility is a sense of accountability for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Responsibility implies dependability. A sense of responsibility can become weakened when one is faced with peer pressure. Medical professionals must be able to answer or be accountable for their actions (Fremgen, 2009).Ã¢â¬ Since this organization is federally funded it has a duty to every American to follow through with every part of their mission statement for a healthier and well safeguarded nation. Ã¢â¬Å"Detecting and responding to new and emerging health threats (Centers for Disease Control, 2013).Ã¢â¬ This means that as healthcare organization workers are working around the clock to prevent new illness while trying to make old illness a thing of the past. Operating on the fact that if one is human and is part of t his country then they have a right to protection from emerging health dangers. Relationship between the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and ethical decision-making The Organizational Culture revolves around creating a work environment where employee health and safety is valued, supported and promoted through workplace health programs policies, benefits, and environmental changes (CDC, 2013). In order to achieve this goal the CDCÃ promotes positive health based programs both in communities and places of employment. If employers create a healthier workplace then not only will it decrease the likelihood that employees will have to miss work due to injury or illness, it will also ensure higher productivity from staff. If companies enact policies and procedures that support health it will make that company more attractive place to work for both existing employees and potential new employees. The five main categories that CDC recommends offering health information and care for employees are behavioral health, health screening, mental health, injury, and adult immunizations (CDC, 2013). Providing services for things like depression, alcohol and substance abuse, smoking cessation, and nutrition courses will help provide overall better lives for employees which will result in having more highly motivated productive workers while they are on the job.. Some ideas for promoting a healthier workplace to lower obesity would be offering lunches to employees to purchase that consist of fresh fruits, vegetables, and salads. Employers can put together exercise groups or offer reimbursement to employees who obtain gym memberships and attend at least four days a week. Importance of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical values supporting your ethical values It is important that the ethical values of an organization support the ethical values of its members/staff. Without the support and understanding of ethics in the workplace, situations can become incredibly hard for not only the staff but also for the patients involved. The principles and values mentioned in oaths and declarations form the basis for ethical practices in health care. Ã¢â¬Å"Despite differences, these works often emphasize several common value orientations or ethical principles, including beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, respect for patient autonomy, and confidentiality.Ã¢â¬ (Gabel, 2011) As a rebirth of interest in medicinal ethics is not only a positive influence for patients, but is also very crucial to all medical staff members. Research has been collected to suggest that medical professionals, particularly physicians, often have a rising burnout rate when they perceive that the ethics and values they stand by are not the same as the organization they are connected to and work with. Doctors and other medical staff personnel who are faced with overwhelming working conditions, negative influences to their own morals, are most likely attend to these situations in different methods in attempting to saveÃ his/her personal resources. Ã¢â¬Å"However, overwhelming work demands or conflicts involving basic values make increased stress, diminished or depleted resources, and more likely causes burnout. (Gabel, 2011) To not accept low-paying patients because of government insurance, such as Medicaid, could be considered unethical. Even though a code of ethics can form a bas eline for unethical behavior, such behavior should be viewed as unethical in the first place. When employees share the same values they will react the same when such problems arise. It is not farfetched to assume that organizations will run smoother when its workforce agrees on what is moral behavior and what is not, at least with respect to the conduct of business. Social Responsibility for CDC in the community The social responsibilities for this organization in the community are to continually inform and educate the people of the importance in preventing the conditions that may affect them as a whole. According from the Public Health Reports, Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the multilevel and overlapping nature of these epidemic, and their social and structural determinants, is the key to designing and implementing more effective prevention programsÃ¢â¬ (Dean & Fenton. 2010). An example of what this organization is socially responsible for is when they are dealing with individuals who are affected by HIV, Viral hepatitis, STIs, and TB. They are responsible for informing an individual with how to properly go about their disease or infections, they are provided the information they need that includes how to overcome being socially impaired due to their conditions, and they are also offered interventions to help them cure or proper treatments of their condition. According to the Report of the National Expert Panel from the CDC website, they have made suggestions like opening both a YMCA and health clinics in housing communities to help promote health. They also suggested that they train more community activists that can serve as advocates in the community for healthy families and also to open book banks and create walking paths. They also suggested that the CDC can help the communities by investigating social determinant of health, help develop community-based systems that help with health disparities and also to use more evidence based programs in the schools. Conclusion CDC is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s leading public health agency that protects the health and safety of the members of our community. The organization uses ethical approach when serving the nation. CDC has a culture that supports and develops ethical practices, raising staff awareness, and tools to analyze ethical issues (CDC, 2013). The organization follows the policy of Code of Federal Regulations provided by U.S. Health and Human Services in any research involving human subjects. CDC has many research centers to conduct prevention research to prevent and control chronic and acute diseases. References Centers for Disease Control. (2013). Mission Statement, Public Health Ethics, Workplace Health Ethics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov Dean, Hazel D ScD, MPH and Fenton, Kevin A MD, PhD. (2010). Public Health Reports. Addressing Social Determinants of Health in the Prevention and Control of HIV/AIDS, and Tuberculosis. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles Finegan, J. (1994). The impact of personal values on judgments of ethical behavior in the Workplace. Journal of Business Ethics, 13(9), 747. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview Fremgen, B. F. (2009). Medical law and ethics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Gabel, S. (2011). Ethics and Values in Clinical Practice: Whom Do They Help? Mayo Clinic proceeding 86(5):421-424. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles Recommendations for future efforts in community health promotion. Report of the National expert Panel on Community Health Promotion. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/pdf/community
Friday, January 3, 2020
Assignment One: Urban ethnography book review. Anxious Wealth: Money and Morality Among ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s New Rich, by John Osburg Main argument: 507 Anxious Wealth is an ethnographic book that explores the background networking strategies of ChengduÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful elite group of entrepreneurs, professionals, and government officials. Themes covered include recreational habits such as gambling, banqueting, drinking, uniting with female hostesses, and a range of other unexpectedly significant facets of relationships that may result in exchanges of mutual advantage. Osburg argues these networks as being central (and at times, corrosive) forces in political, economic, and social life in China, and also informative on the origins, workings, and maintenance of corruption, as well as class and gender inequality. These relationships organise more than just business ventures, also orientating personal morality and performance in hierarchical social status. Through the ethnography, Osburg shows the dominating powers of these networks, especially where business to government official ties are concerned. These non-commodifiable ties of blood and sentiment (through shared sexual experiences, for example) are highly valued in a society where monetised bribes are so prevalent (83). This, Osburg argues, is commonly known, and embodied by businessmen such as informant Mr. Chen who upon discussing his networks, stated Ã¢â¬Å"...in China, there is no law. Relationships are the law.Ã¢â¬ (77). RelationshipShow MoreRelatedBusiness Environment of Pre-British India13645 Words Ã |Ã 55 Pages....................................................................................... 4 Mesolithic Man / Middle Stone Age ........................................................................................... .............. 4 Neolithic Man / New Stone Age................................................................................................................ 5 Bronze Age Ã¢â¬â Indus Valley Civilization .....................................................................................Read MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 PagesUniversity of NebraskaÃ¢â¬âLincoln Jonathan P. Doh Villanova University INTERNATIONAL MANAGEMENT: CULTURE, STRATEGY, AND BEHAVIOR, EIGHTH EDITION Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright Ã © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019
Actress Emma Watson, a United Nations Goodwill Ambassador, has used her fame and activism to shine a spotlight on gender inequality and sexual assault at universities and colleges around the world. In September 2016, the Harry Potter star delivered a speech about the gender double standards that many women encounter when they study and work at universities.Ã This address was a followup to a speech she made two years earlier after launching a gender equality initiative called HeForShe at the U.N. headquarters in New York. Then, she focused on global gender inequality and the role thatÃ men and boys must play to fight for justice for girls and women. Her 2016 speech echoed these concerns while specifically focusing on sexism in academia. Speaking Out for Women A feminist, Emma Watson used her September 20, 2016, appearance at the U.N. to announce the publication of the firstÃ HeForShe IMPACT 10x10x10 University Parity Report. It documents the pervasiveness of gender inequality across the globe and the commitment 10 university presidents made to fight this problem. During her speech, Watson linked the gender disparities on college campuses to the widespread problem of sexual violence that many women experience while pursuing higher education. She said: Thank you all for being here for this important moment.Ã These men from all over the world have decided to make gender equality a priority in their lives and inÃ their universities. Thank you for making this commitment. I graduated from university four years ago. I had always dreamed of going and I know how fortunate I am to have had the opportunity to do so. Brown [University] became my home, my community, and I took the ideas and the experiences I had there into all of my social interactions, into my workplace, into my politics, into all aspects of my life. I know that my university experience shaped who I am, and of course, it does for many people. But what if our experience at university shows us that women dont belong in leadership? What if it shows us that, yes, women can study, but they shouldnt lead a seminar? What if, as still in many places around the world, it tells us that women dont belong there at all? What if, as is the case in far too many universities, we are given the message that sexual violence isnt actually a form of violence? But we know that if you change students experiences so they have different expectations of the world around them, expectations of equality, society will change. As we leave home for the first time to study at the places that we have worked so hard to get, we must not see or experience double standards. We need to see equal respect, leadership, and pay. The university experience must tell women that their brain power is valued, and not just that, but that they belong among the leadership of the university itself. And so importantly, right now, the experience must make it clear that the safety of women, minorities, and anyone who may be vulnerable is a right and not a privilege. A right that will be respected by a community that believes and supports survivors. And that recognizes that when one persons safety is violated, everyone feels that their own safety is violated. A university should be a place of refuge that takes action against all forms of violence. Thats why we believe that students should leave university believing in, striving for, and expecting societies of true equality. Societies of true equality in every sense, and that universities have the power to be a vital catalyst for that change. Our ten impact champions have made this commitment and with their work we know they will inspire students and other universities and schools across the world to do better. Im delighted to introduce this report and our progress, and Im eager to hear whats next. Thank you so much. Reaction to Watsons Speech Emma Watsons 2016 U.N. speech on gender equality on college campuses has netted more than 600,000 YouTube views. In addition, her words garnered headlines from publications such as Fortune, Vogue, and Elle. Since the actress, a Brown University graduate, gave her speech, new challenges have emerged. In 2016, Watson was hopeful that the United States would elect its first female president. Instead, voters elected Donald Trump, who appointed Betsy DeVos as his education secretary. DeVos has overhauled how colleges respond to sexual assault claims, making procedures more difficult for victims, her critics argue. They say the proposed changes to Obama-era educational policies will make women more vulnerable on college campuses.