Monday, September 30, 2019

Brown v. Board of Education

In the broad scope of the hundreds of thousands of cases decided by the United States Supreme Court in decades past, few measure up to the historical significance of Brown v. Board of Education. The decision of the judges in this particular dispute challenged the mainstream views of the people of our country, changing the times, and shaping the future of America. Not only did the Court’s ruling protect the rights of millions of African American students in our country, moreover Brown v.Board of Education launched the civil rights movement that produced the America we know today. Had the judges ruled other than the way they did, one can only imagine how the history of our country would have played out, or how different our nation would be as a result. In the years leading up to the 1950’s, as a whole, the people of our country were severely discriminative towards the African American race. People of different colors were forced to shop in separate stores, eat in separate restaurants, live on opposite sides of town, and even drink from different water fountains.The same held true for the public school system, which unfairly segregated students according to their color based on the laws that Brown v Board of Education changed. Tragically, the schools reserved for white children were in far better condition than the schools for those of the minority, usually lacking decent books and properly trained teachers, and often teaching an inadequate curriculum (The Brown Foundation).It is no surprise then that the affliction of these minority students did not settle well with the race as a whole, and in 1951, after long suffering, four complaints were filed in four separate states against their respective school boards (Brown v. Board 486). As summarized by The Brown Foundation, the first action arose out of Delaware, where the segregated schools were considerably unequal. There, black students were bused from their homes to schools hours away, rather than at tending the schools for white children where they lived.After being denied access to the white schools near their homes, suit was filed. The second case came from Topeka, Kansas, where the number of white schools greatly outnumbered the amount of black schools. As a result, parents in Topeka tried to enroll their black children in white schools, only to be denied. The third case was filed in South Carolina, where the schools were also substantially unequal. When the parents of black children filed suit against their school board, the Court ordered that the schools be equalized. The schools however, refused to comply. The final case arose out of Virginia.There the schools were far too small to accommodate the number of students that attended them, and once again were grossly inadequate, lacking even indoor plumbing. After suit was filed locally, the school board was ordered to make the segregated schools equal, however black children still were not admitted in to white schools (The B rown Foundation). The facts regarding each case were different, but the issue at hand was the same, young African American children had been denied access to the schools reserved for their white counterparts per the laws that were written to protect them from such injustices.The very government that was intended to protect their rights and freedoms denied the relief of the children, holding to the â€Å"separate but equal† doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson. That doctrine stated that the separation of black and white students was within the law, so long as the segregated schools were equal. After defeat in federal district courts, on appeal, the four cases were consolidated into what is known as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, to be heard in The Supreme Court in 1952 (Brown v. Board 487,488).The Supreme Court Justices looked in depth at the fourteenth amendment, more specifically the right of the equal protection of the laws that the fourteenth amendment guaranteed to all Americans, of which the minority children claimed that they were deprived of. The justices pondered the question, â€Å"Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other ‘tangible’ factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? † (Brown v.Board 493). The Justices addressed the equality of the education in public schools overall, throwing out the idea that if books, desks, and classrooms were similar, then children received an equal education. Considering the fact that separated black children are educated in a way that makes them feel inferior to white children, the Court held that the feelings of inferiority, which were enforced by the laws of our country, effected the driving force behind the students that urged them to learn and therefore to receive an equal education.On May 17, 1954, the Court ruled that the â€Å"separate but equalâ €  doctrine was irrelevant when it came to education, thus holding that the segregation of students based on race did in fact violate the rights set forth by the fourteenth amendment (Brown v. Board 495). Then a few weeks later, on May 31, the last day of the term, the judges elaborated on their decision, ordering that the desegregation of schools take place with â€Å"all deliberate speed† (The National Archives). As news of the Court’s decision spread across America, as expected, people of the white race were extremely unhappy.Rather than doing as the Justices had ordered, most states simply refused to comply with their judgment. The years following proved to be a battle for the African American race. Brown v. Board of Education seemed to affect the race as whole rather than only the students who longed to attend equal schools. In Virginia, the Governor shut down all public schools in an attempt to avoid their desegregation. Instead of simply allowing the black ch ildren access, the state issued vouchers to white families so they could send their children to private schools, leaving the black children without any education at all.In Arkansas, the National Guard had to accompany several black students, whom we now recognize as The Little Rock Nine, on their walk into a newly desegregated school as white students verbally and physically abused them. To prolong the desegregation, states attempted to enforce a â€Å"freedom of choice theory†. By which black students had the option of attending any school they wanted in the district. Nevertheless, when parents sent their minority children to white schools, they were tortured by angry whites, who threatened them and even burnt crosses in their yards.The National Education Association estimates that in the decade following the landmark Supreme Court decision, nearly 38,000 black educators lost their jobs (The National Education Association). With the ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, it seemed the minority had won the battle; unfortunately the war was far from over. What ensued following Brown v. Board of Education was one of the most imperative eras in the history of our country, what we now call the civil rights movement. The judges who ruled in the case could not have predicted the relevancy of their verdict, nor the outcome that would eventually come to pass.Brown v. Board of Education has proven to be a case that greatly impacted the lives of millions of African Americans and the freedoms that all people, despite their race, now experience every day. Works Cited The Brown Foundation, â€Å"Brown v. Board of Education: About the Case. † The Brown Foundation. 11 Apr 2004. The Brown Foundation. 29 Apr 2008 . The National Archives, â€Å"Timeline of Events Leading to the Brown v. Board of Education Decision, 1954. † The National Archives. 2008. The Federal Government. 30 Apr 2008 . The National Education Association, â€Å"50th Anniversary, Brown v. Board of Education. † Public Schools for Every Child. 2008. The National Education Association. 30 Apr 2008 . Patterson, James. Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and its Troubled Legacy. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. The United States Supreme Court, â€Å"Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. â€Å" United States Reports 483 (1954) 486-496. 29 Apr 2008 .

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Journal Entry Week One

The culture goes back through time. Assayer (2013) stated, â€Å"Egypt continuous cultural tradition?lasting over 3,000 years? Is history's clearest example of how peace and prosperity go hand in hand with cultural stability† (p. 28). There are many fascinating facets from the way Egyptians lived from the building of the pyramids to the burial of their leaders.It amazes me to know a society can build such structures without the modern day machinery that we have today. The passion they had for life and displaying that In the way they lived as written on the walls of heir pyramids. One of the Inaccuracies of these Images Is they are exactly the same. All the figures have the same body structure and build. Male and female resemble each other In such a way that the only way to tell them apart Is by their facial hair.All of the Images are depicted facing to the right or left and having the same size. This Is still a mystery as to why their depiction of their people Is of this natur e. The Egyptians went through droughts with the water system and developed and depended on an irrigation system that provided their society with water. This is just en of the many important aspects of the Egyptians that help to make them unique. The Egyptians also found uses for metals and were able to manipulate these metals into jewelry and amour.Their leaders were buried in tombs and the organs separated into jars made out of precious metals and Jewels. The heart was weighed as a part off balance system during the burial. The sun was an important part of their lives and even treated as a god. All these different aspects of the Egyptian culture made up who they were as a society thousands of years ago.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Role of Music in Computer Games Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Role of Music in Computer Games - Essay Example Computer or video game music involves the use of soundtracks that accompany the game while it is being played. Early games used YMO melodies and beats. They used simple sounds and there was little distinction between 'noise' and 'music', or 'sound' and 'music'. At the time, little concentration was given to the possibility of incorporating music into games. Numerical developments in storage capacity increased over time. Long ago, the 1983-87 era employed '8-bit' systems, the 1987-1993 era used '16-bit' systems (Donkey Kong Country 2), '32-bit' systems occurred during 1993-2003 and the '64-bit' has been used since 2003-present. More space in the memory has been focused on with more detail being added (images, sounds and music). The first commercially produced games were by Computer Space (Nutting Associates 1971). The first game produced that had a 'musical dimension' was Space Invaders in 1978. It employed the rise and fall of bass notes that looped and sped up when the 'aliens' got nearer –a popular cinematic technique. Super Mario Brothers was the first video game produced in 1985 that went on to achieve worldwide success. The first dynamic use of 8-bit music was in a game’s plot titled Duck Tales in 1989. The first time songs were incorporated into video games was in 2005 in the computer game, ‘Still Alive’ in ‘Portal’. The development of the popularity of games was acknowledged which led to the creation of arcade games. At present, it is reported that video game composers employ advanced tools and instruments to make these exceptionally high quality sound tracks. These soundtracks rival the quality of production and musical sources that are distinctive with films. The central connection that exists between films and videogames is that they both rely heavily on the use of aural cues and visual cues as well to express a sense of constant diegesis or game world. The role played by music in these video games has advanced from once being a mere ringing sound to symphonic orchestral sounds and hip-hop playlists that can be customized. At present, music in computer games has evolved the whole experience one derives from these games when compared to the past. This fact has caused competitors within the game console industry to revolutionize their products. Music is used to express a particular mood when the visuals are accompanied with it. Onekey function among the extensive video game music functions sis that the sound aids in engaging the discernment of a spatial digress by the audience. Diegetic and Extra diegetic music is usually combined with the video game sounds to generate a particular captivating mood. Diegetic music is the kind of music assumed to be perceptible to the characters in the narrative on the screen. Musical cues and sound effects usually impart the objects with even an extra life than they possess when they simply make appearances as figures in motion. Use of music in computer game s makes the illusion portrayed in computer games compelling. Use of music in film Musical cues and sound effects have always been part of film from inception of the film began. Early exhibitions of films were characteristically incorporated the use of a piano. Silent films were complemented by a range of musical instruments such as the solo piano to larger musical instruments depending on the kind of film. Music in films was intended to spark interest in audiences.Originally, films had no music andthis caused audiences to seek other sounds (such as ambient noises) that fulfilledfunctions usually achieved by musical cues.Use of musical cues in film applieshigher influence on the subject of the film than it would have if there was no accompaniment of music.Music divides the emotive content of the filmand considerably impactson the understanding of thetheatrical plot by the audience (Collins, 2008).Music within films influences memoryof the scenes in the film. Through the musical cues, one is able to remember what was

Friday, September 27, 2019

Reconstructing gender Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Reconstructing gender - Essay Example The gulf found between men and women emanates from nature rather than nurture. As such, the two sexes covey their messages differently because of how their brains are made up, and women are often better communicators. The male brain excels in doing mathematical and visual spatial tasks whereas the female brain is better suited at doing verbal tasks. These glaring differences lead to miscommunication at times between the two sexes. However, the diversity existing between males and females enables them to co-exist together amiably. In her article, Ayana discusses the representation or depiction of females in hip hop videos. Her article made me comprehend more about the issues being articulated by feminists in regard to hip hop music videos. After reading the article, I agree with her main points. In her article, Ayana asserts the feminist tone by critiquing hip hop videos. Her main area of focus is hip hop’s gender and sexual depiction of women. Her primary critique comes from the fact that women are depicted as sex objects in most hip hop videos. For example, Ayana points out that in parties, women are mostly scantily dressed while men are fully dressed. This depiction belittles women hence portrays them as just sexual

Thursday, September 26, 2019

HRM - Talent Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

HRM - Talent Management - Essay Example One of the strategies that have enabled the success of a large number of companies on a global scale has been their ability to find very good people to work for them on the ground (Karin, 2004). This means that the employees of these companies have to be well trained, promotable, and diverse and committed, creating an environment where the companies are able to provide the best services to their customers. To achieve such a workforce, it is necessary for companies to create some extremely good employee policies, which will work towards gaining the confidence of potential employees (Maxwell, 2004). One of the main reasons for the success of companies has been their ability to bring potential employees into their workforce, because this has ensured that they a dedicated workforce working for them, hence an increase in their productivity. Performance management is an extremely important aspect of human resources and it involves the systematic process through which a company involves its employees, as individuals and members of a team, in ensuring the effectiveness of the said company in the accomplishment of the mission and goals that it has set for itself (Piskurich, 2006). In any effective company, rewards towards employees are used well because they are the basis upon which employees can be motivated to be more productive. Rewarding means the recognition of deserving employees, alone or as members of teams, for their work and acknowledging their involvement in the achievement of the aims and objectives of the company for which they work (Broderick and Pearce, 2001). One of the basic principles of effective management is that all behaviour is controlled by its consequences and the said consequences... This essay describes the most important tasks when dealing with talent management, that is people resourcing. It involves the recruiting and employing of individuals who will work for a company. The essay explores the management of talent within a company, that is very important in the interaction between people within it and in fact, it is the glue that holds the employees of the said company together. The researcher states that without talent management, all other elements of the company would not be able to function, and in fact, they would be virtually non-existent. Talent management is therefore very important for a company to function effectively and it has even become more important today because of globalization issue, which has forced people and companies to start working across cultures as opposed to when people only used to work within their own cultures or societies. It is often very difficult for a company to embrace talent management if its management believes that its corporate culture is superior to all other cultures and that the practices of others are not in accordance its own views. It is also important for a company to embrace the cultures it encounters in new environments because this will ensure that it is able to make swift changes that may be beneficial to it. In conclusion, the researcher suggests that with swift changes, that are mentioned in the essay it would be much easier for the companies to be able to manage its talents so that it can be more productive.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Critical Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

Critical Review - Essay Example The main aim of this research is to investigate hCGÃŽ ² triggered signaling pathways and the linkage between hCGÃŽ ² expression and cell motility in the cancerous cells. The study aims to understand more on hCGÃŽ ². This aids the formulation of a study that may help in understanding molecular therapy in treating prostate cancer. Various methods are used in the treatment of cancer patients although they have not been successful in reducing the level of mortality rate among cancer patients (Chiu et al., 2012). Molecular therapy is a new method that takes a different approach to treat cancer since the carcinoma regenerates and as a result attacking the tumors is therefore only for the short-term making it impossible to stop the problem (Armstrong and George, 2008). The human chorionic gonadotropin ÃŽ ² (hCGÃŽ ²) induced migration and invasion in human prostate cancer cells is one of the methods although the molecular mechanisms are unclear. hCGÃŽ ² is therefore studied as the main trigger and its effects to the ERK 1/2 and MMPs studied to understand its effect on these regulators in order to come up with a conclusive argument as to whether the molecular therapy method is feasible in treating prostate cancer. The transfection method that involved establishing a stable cell line overexpressing hCGÃŽ ² in DU145 cells revealed that; the cells without integration were of hCGÃŽ ². The genes were dead and floating in the medium and the single colonies which stably express hCGÃŽ ² were collected (Babykutty et al., 2012). The method was used in dividing the cells and collecting cultured cells that could be used in other procedures as the process took place for two weeks. Typically, the dead cells from the experiment were not found (Leahy et al., 2012). The real time PCR separating the total RNA ensured that the culture cells remaining in the experiment

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Article 35 Chrome the conqueror Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Article 35 Chrome the conqueror - Essay Example It then ventured into specialized search apps that were designed for each specific organization. These search applications enabled enterprises to embed Google’s search facility into their own personalized environments. This enabled them to search just about anything and everything within their organizational setup using a privatized search engine. As a result, Google was hailed with welcoming gestures. The nest big thing google introduced was Google Mail or GMail.It emerged at a time when the then prevalent email service providers were beginning to think of charging their customer for the extra mail storage space that they were intending to provide. It was in such a scenario that google was introduced. Emerging like a saviour Google proposed an e-mail inbox that was not only much higher in storage capacity than its’ existing counterparts, but it’s storage capacity also continuously multiplied in manifolds. What else could anyone wish for other than a large email storage and that too for free! The years that then progressed saw The Googalization of just about everything. You name and it was there. May it be the editing software of Google APPS or the ever mesmerizing Google Earth and Google MARS, the software giant moved on one step ahead with every passing unit time. Then those were the times when smart phones were just becoming ever popular, Google did not take much time to jump into the scenario by purchasing the emerging Android Technology. After having the privilege of having Google’s name joined with its own the Android technology became increasingly popular. This software was open in naure. It had the ability of embedding itself into different hardwares. This also included a hardware smartphone that was designed specfically for android usage. The end of the first decade of the twenty first millennium marked the release of the web browser that changed the history of web browsing upside down. Chrome was just the browser that was n eeded to suit everyone. Lightweight and easily operable, chrome quickly integrated itself under Microsoft’s cap. It went this far ahead in doing so that it provided a variant that could survive within Microsoft’s Internet Explorer in the form of a sub window. Applications such as ‘Chrome Angry Birds Game† that are specifically accessible via the chrome browser only can now be played in the Internet Explorer as well via chrome’s sub window embedded in the IE. When people were still getting used to the quick browsing saga that chrome had introduced them to, the news of Google Wave’s emergence sparked up! This application was a merger of Mail, Messaging, Social Networking, Translation etc. A single consolidated application contained various o What else could a user ask for? Whether it is said loudly or not Google’s groundbreaking successes throughout the Internet and even beyond it were as if they were directed to be stabbed right at Micro soft’s Heart, the leading and reigning giant of the cyber world at the time when Google emerged. Evaluating the rate at which Google proceeded from its mere search engine to the Google Wave the next expected achievement by Google could have well been anticipated. This achievement was emergence of an OS that would be owned by Google itself. Referred to as the â€Å"Camel’s nose in the tent†

Monday, September 23, 2019

Respons Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Respons - Essay Example I agree with the author because using phone while walking is dangerous as it distracts a person from external environment and causes accidents and even death. Many a times, people underestimate the negative consequences of using a cell phone while walking or driving. For instance, last week while I was walking along the side way, I saw a young man talking on the phone and crossing the road. In a second, I could here is scream as he was hit by a car and injured his leg. Here Matt Ritchell is right in focusing on multi – tasking while on phone as it is a very dangerous act. The use of cell- phone can have many adverse effect including legal penalties .It is seen that many times children use cell phone at schools which can get them punishment. Last month, one of my neighbor’s kid was thrown out of class due the use of cell phone during class hours. Even at work, excessive use of cell phone can result in harmful consequences. Few days back my friend’s brother was fired from work due to his excessive texting at work. In the article â€Å"Behavior: Imitation of Film: Heres Smoking at You, Kid† Nicholas Bakalar claims of the imitation of smoking behavior in children due to watching smoking in movies. Generally children have a high tendency to imitate, and smoking is the most easily imitated behavior from movies. According to a study conducted with 6522 children nationwide it was revealed that children exposed to smoking in movies had two and half times chance to start smoking. I agree with the author here as it is a proven fact that children exposed to smoking through movies have a high tendency to end up as smokers in future. It is usually observed that parents and government authorities ignore the effect of smoking in movies on young children. When last time I visited movies, I have noticed bunch of young children smoking outside the theatre.It could be that these children were regular visitor to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Global Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Global Leadership - Essay Example With suitable policies in place it would be possible to hasten the allocation of required materials and assimilate federal and military aid. Introduction It is time that both the common people and policy makers understand and accept the fact that climatic changes are rampant with the increasing global temperatures and the melting ice slabs in the Arctic and Antarctic regions and the resulting global rise in sea levels. The past year has been recorded as the warmest year and this warming has resulted in the melting of the glaciers and leaving behind open waters. The mudslides in China and soaring temperatures during summer in Russia are also the result of changing climatic trends (Homer-Dixon, 2010). This continuing change in climatic conditions and the small disasters occurring within short intervals can lead to cascading catastrophes of huge magnitudes that could leave behind severe damages to both human life and property. And in order to effectively combat such catastrophes, a more detailed response option needs to be framed which is different from the traditional responses as these would be ineffective during such circumstances.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Australian Paper Manufacturers Essay Example for Free

Australian Paper Manufacturers Essay Introduction The case deals with the Australian Paper industry in 1990, the major players operating in it and how the environment is throwing up challenges to its major players and shaping the future growth of the industry. The paper industry in Australia can be separated into three categories Newsprint, Paperboards and Fine paper. The industry is dominated by two big players namely the PCA and Australian Paper Manufacturer (APM) and the rest catered to by imports. PCA operates in the fine paper market enjoying a 75% market share, while APM is a leading player in the paperboards segment. Both the companies are part of a huge diversified parent organization. Environment regulations from the government, green peace activists have been recently posing threats to PCA on organochloride emissions. APM is proactively seeking to strive ahead of the environmental issues facing the industry. Ken McRae, the GM of APM has to decide on three alternatives to choose upon for utilizing the A$ 50 million allocated by the parent company Amcor, keeping in view the Financial, Strategic, Ethical and Environmental issues. Case Facts Before 1987, the Australian paper industry was divided into three companies. Australian Newsprint Mills supplied newsprint, Australian Paper Manufacturers produced paperboard, and Paper Company of Australia produced coated and uncoated fine-papers. All three of those companies were subsidiaries of major Australian corporations. Maitland sales, which owned Paper Company of Australia (PCA), recorded $495 million in net sales. Amcor Limited, which owned Australian Paper Manufacturers (APM), grossed $2.4 billion in net sales. APM decided to enter another aspect of the paper industry and dive into uncoated fine papers. They figured that they could draw on their strength in paperboard manufacturing. The making of fine paper or paper in general requires close attention to detail. The first step in making paper requires the wood to be pulped. This process refined the wood so that only the fibers remained. During pulping, the cellulose fibers were separated from the other components so it could be processed further. This process can be done in two different ways, mechanically or chemically. The chemical process produces much sturdier pulp, but unlike mechanical pulping, which uses 90-95% of the wood, chemical pulping uses 45-50%. Chemical pulping is also the least environmentally friendly of the two. When the fibers are made into fine paper, it goes through an immediate step called bleaching, where as chlorine gas and chlorine dioxide are applied to the pulp. After bleaching, chemicals such as, rosin, aluminium sulphate, or synthetics to reduce absorbency for writing papers. The annual consumption of fine paper in Australia rose to nearly 358,000 tonnes in 1987. Uncoated fine paper, such as photocopy paper, stationary, and offset printing paper, comprised 52% of that market, while coated fine paper, the type used in an annual report, comprised of the rest. In 1984 APM completed a a $163 million modernization of its kraft pulp plant in Maryvale, Victoria. The improvement added 140000 tonnes per year of kraft pulp capacity, bringing the Maryvale plant’s total output to 350000 tonnes per year. The Maryvale plant had four paper machines and in 1986 APM turned its attention to Paper Machine 3.Originally built in 1972 to produce brown shopping bags Machine 3 had a capacity of 31,000 tonnes per year. By the mid 1980s, though people had stopped using these checkout bags and between Machines 1 and 2 the company could cover demand. This left Machine 3 ripe for transformation. APM seized the opportunity, upgraded machine 3 and used it to take them into the heart of PCAs fine-papers market. People in the plant were convinced that it could be done and that their years of experience in making bag paper could be adapted to such a closely allied process. A number of trial runs were made in order to determine the general viability of the idea. Once it was proven feasible, APM sanctioned the investment. Between May 1986 and July 1987 APM spent A$50 million to rebuild Maryvale’s Machine 3, converting it from making bag paper to producing white wood free paper. The upgrading of Machine 3 had not only put APM next to PCA as the second domestic supplier of uncoated fine paper. It also made APM the owner of Australia’s largest and most technologically advanced fine paper machine. The 70,000 tonnes per year of Machine 3 capacity gave APM the product it needed to steal from imports-the company’s primary goal in entering the fine paper market. Customers had been accustomed to buying some of their paper from PCA and some from overseas but PCA had not kept pace with the growth in demand. Although aiming to replace imports, McRae, director marketing for APM papers group at the time, knew his toughest job lay in establishing APM’s fine papers amid a market dominated by PCA. In August 1987, APM inaugurated its move into the fine papers market. McRae developed a careful paln for ramping up to full capacity on Maryvale 3.APM intended to be producing at 40,000 tonnes annual rate by august 1988, starting with three crews working Monday through Friday and eventually moving to four and then five crews. Like all of Maryvale’s other paper machines, Machine 3 would eventually operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. By August 1988, Maryvale Machine 3 was producing at a rate of 50,000 tonnes per year and by March 1989 it had reached its capacity of 70,000 tonnes per year. In May 1989 APM introduced its newest entry in the fine papers market, ReRight. It was Australia’s first stationery paper made from 100% recycled paper- post- recycled paper that was produced without chemicals and was neither de-inked nor bleached. The World Wildlife endorsed ReRight and the product generated significant interest and publicity. Despite ReRight’s higher cost it grabbed a 3% market share (7,000 tonnes per year) of the uncoated fine papers market. To recoup its research and development expense, APM charged 20% more for ReRight than for comparable, non recycled paper. ReRight’s immediate acceptance inspired APM to introduce ReRight-Form in the spring of 1990, a recycled computer paper. While APM expanded its recycling efforts PCA suffered yet another blow on the environmental front. Greenpeace released a surprise report on PCA’s Kayser soda pulp mill on the coast of Tasmania, declaring it the dirtiest mill of its type in Australia. It found Kayser discharging 11.5 tonnes of organochlorides per day into the sea, at times reaching a level 80% above government standards. It also decried the presence of chloroform a cancer causing agent, in the effluent and cited it as a health risk to PCA’s workers. The environmental group called upon the government to monitor the mill’s effluent levels more closely and demanded that the company reduce its discharge of organochlorines to a maximum of one kilogram per tonne of pulp. It also recommended complete elimination of organochlorine discharges by 1993 and asked the government to review employees’ medical records to search for abnormal incidence of cancers attributable to oraganochlorines such as chloroform. Future Scenario Encouraged by APM’s success Amcor had provided A$50 million to APM to consolidate yhe investment that had carried it into fine papers, though a pre-tax return of at least 20% was expected. While larger sums could always be requested, it was understood that larger sums required more attractive returns-as had been the case when APM originally entered the market by upgrading Machine 3. Further expansion into fine papers loomed as a possibility. Copier paper alone promised 10% annual growth and recycled paper continued to grow in popularity. The uncoated fine papers market as whole was projected to grow at a rate of 6.5% annually through the year 2000. Now, McRae had the following options for the capital budget: 1) The capacity of Machine 3 at Maryvale could be expanded upto 100,000 tonnes. Initial estimates put the cost of increasing from the existing capacity of 70,000 tonnes at A$35 million. McRae would have to decide how he would use this extra capacity. Analysis of option 1- 2) APM was producing 7,000 tonnes of recycled paper at its Fairfield plant and increasing capacity would cost A$18 million. Analysis of option 2- 3) In addition to APM’s recycling efforts, McRae focused on ways to reduce APM’s discharge of organochlorines. APM could reduce its dependence on chlorine by substituting oxygen in one of two ways: a) To replace chlorine through oxygen pre-bleaching, APM would have to spend A$15 million in development and implantation. Oxygen pre-bleaching would reduce chlorine use by 50%. Pulp output at Maryvale would drop by 5% from 350,000 tonnes to 332,500 tonnes, but many engineers at the plant had expressed keen interest in learning about the technology. Pulp contribution at Maryvale was A$200 per tonne of pulp. Analysis of option (a)- b) Alternatively, APM could intensify the use of oxygen during bleaching, which would reduce the level of chlorine by 15% and cost approximately A$8 million. Pulp output would be unaffected. Analysis of option (b)-

Friday, September 20, 2019

Cold War Causes and Effects

Cold War Causes and Effects The timing of the Cold War was crucial and one of the most diverse in the recent world history. Not only was it a war of diversity, but a war of great length that lasted about fifty years. What made this time so significant was that the whole world was involved in this war in some way. The world was split into two opposite teams and one minor mistake could have easily resulted in another world war. The Cold War is different from most wars for the simple reason of it was a war that was never actually fought. The Cold War started because Europe lost power at the end of World War II. This left the Soviet Union and the United States competing for economic and military rule. Both countries believed their policies were the best and ultimately wanted all others to follow. George Kennan coined the term containment to describe the appropriate American response to dealing with the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Ojserkis, 2003: 53). Containment was a way for the United States to stall the spread of communism and they used this as their main strategy. The United States used both economic and military tactics to ensure their security and influence policies against communism. The Cold War had relatively calm periods but also had periods of high tension. Despite many conflicts, there was never any military force directly between the Socialist and Capitalist. U.S. President Harry S. Truman developed the Truman Doctrine on March 12, 1947. The policy stated that the U.S. would support Turkey and Gr eece to prevent their fall to communism. Several circumstances produced this unexpected presidential success in foreign affairs: the appointment of a new Secretary of State; Trumans own leadership-often erratic, but tough in responding to the large issues of foreign policy and national security; and an economic crisis in Europe (Hammond, 1969: 19). The Marshall Plan was a program developed by the United States to help aid European Countries after World War II. George C. Marshall was the man with the plan and his efforts for world peace would later be honored by the Nobel Peace Prize. The Marshall plan was also offered to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, but they did not accept it. The United Nations had the role of stopping wars between different countries. The Marshall Plan helped better the lives of many people. As soon as Congress had authorized the Marshall Plan expenditures for the first year, the Administration, with the cooperation of the Republic leadership in the House and Senate foreign relations committees, began to lay the legislative groundwork for the North Atlantic Treaty (Hammond, 1969: 26). The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO, was created as a result of the Cold War and was designed as a defense mechanism against communism. Doubtless the Warsaw Pact, multilateral military alliance with a combin ed command structure, was largely what it appeared to be-a mirror image of NATO (Hammond, 1969: 57). Russia formed the Warsaw Pact as a comeback to the establishment of NATO. Our membership in NATO today is still necessary for peace among the nations. After World War II, the Soviet Union strengthened its military power enough that it felt able to challenge the United States in Europe. One major crisis of the Cold War involved the Soviet Union blocking grounds to Berlin in attempt to allow Communist to start supplying fuel and food. The Soviet Union wanted control over the city of Berlin and they thought by cutting off all ground supplies they could do so. Little did they know, the United Kingdom and United States would respond with the Berlin Airlift to reach the people of West Berlin with the supplies they needed. Flights were continued daily for about a year and then the block finally ended. How the United States and their allies overcame the block and helped the people of Berlin would determine their destinies for many years to come. Although the Berlin blockade undoubtedly increased Cold War tensions and helped foster the environment in which the American arms build-up would later develop, it did not, in itself, lead to any la rge and long-term strengthening of the U.S. military (Ojserkis, 2003: 23). The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991. As a result of the collapse of the Communist, the Cold War ended. This is what finally gave the United States major military powers. A war without a fight is difficult to explain. That is what makes the Cold War so unique. This was an expensive war; both sides took hard hits financially and it lasted over four decades. The Cold War probably could not have been avoided since there were too many differences between the United States and Russia. With so many controversies between the leaders it is hard to believe that anything could have been done to have made them see eye to eye.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Birth Of A Nation: Art Or Propaganda Essay -- essays research papers

Birth of A Nation: Art or Propaganda   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mankind, engaging in war, driven by whatever instincts guide him, seeks to keep the defeats and victories of battle in his memory and on his conscience. To accomplish this men have used paint and canvas, ink and paper, or instrument and song in their effort to communicate the tragedy and glory of war. Never, before the career of D.W. Griffith had anyone attempted to bring the subject to film. The result of his efforts, weaknesses aside, mark a change in attitude towards film as a media. Perhaps audiences previously going to a picture expected emotional manipulation. After all, years before the film Birth of a nation, makers of film employed techniques to evoke pathos from viewers; whether through the use of a sobbing mother, a frightened child or what have you. In this respect the film was not a ground-breaker; However, through its effective use of devices such as symbolism, foreshadowing and allusions, as well as building on and arguably perfecting film techniques such as continuity editing, intercutting and close-ups, he transformed film from mere entertainment to art and propaganda.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  To present and explore a theme, symbolism is used everywhere in literature. Whether the image is subtle or obvious it is regardless a sign of considerable calculation and effort. In Birth of a nation Griffith places symbols everywhere, in doing this he merges literary devices of written works wi...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Comparing Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now :: Movie Film comparison compare contrast

Comparing Heart of Darkness and Apocalypse Now   Heart of Darkness written by Joseph Conrad and "Apocalypse Now" a movie directed by Francis Coppola are two works that parallel one another but at the same time reflect their own era in time and their creator's own personal feelings and prejudices. "Apocalypse Now" was released in 1979 after two years in the making, as Coppola's modern interpretation to Joseph Conrad's novel, Heart of Darkness (Harris). Conrad's book is an excellent example of the advances writers and philosophers made in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This advance deals with civilized humanity's ability to be prepared for and know the unknown. (Johnson) Comparatively, Copolla's movie does the same in the late 1970's. "Apocalypse Now" dares to breach the edges of soldier sanity in a stressful and protested Vietnam War. One of the many similarities between Heart of Darkness and "Apocalypse Now" is race. Joseph Conrad and Francis Coppola both use white men as the characters that have dominance (Bradley). The white men not only dominate their respective crews, but also the peoples native to the country the white men are visiting. The character Conrad uses, Marlow, and Coppola uses his character, Willard, both look at the natives as though white men are the civilized culture and the native people are the savage culture (Franklin). Both works also reflect the theory that "civilized" white men that go into an uncivilized land become savage and do not return to white civilization. An example of this that is in the book is MarlowÕs appointment with the doctor. The doctor measures Marlow's skull to compare its size at the present time to the size of his skull upon his return from the Congo. The thought is that a civilized manÕs skull is a different size than a savage's skull. When Marlow asks the do ctor how what the results of this test have been in the past, the doctor comments that there are none because no civilized person has ever returned from the Congo. An example of this in the movie is when Willard faces his own personality of whether or not to complete his soldierly mission of killing Kurtz or to abort it. If he completes the mission he is still civil, if he does not, the Vietnam jungle has conquered him. The first soldier that is sent to kill Kurtz did not kill Kurtz, but in fact became one of his followers.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Incarcerated Black Males :: Sociology African American

Black Incarcerated Males For the past two decades, the criminal justice system in the United States has been undergoing a tremendous expansion. There are now more than one million black men in jail and that one out of every four black males will go on prison in there lifetime. Knowing these statistics it put a burden on the black community because many families are left with single family home, the unemployment rate for black male go up, they can not vote and now they make jail seem like it is fun to go to. Black men in Jail are having drastic effects upon the black community. The first and arguably most important effect is that it intensifies the problem of single parent households within the black community. When these men are sentenced to prison, they, many times, leave behind a wife/girlfriend and/or children. If they have already have had children, that child must spend multiple years of his/her early life without a primary father figure. In addition, that male's absence is even more prominently felt when the woman has to handle all of the financial responsibilities on her own. This poses even more problems since women are underpaid relative to men in the workforce, childcare costs must be considered, and many of these women do not have the necessary skills to obtain a job, which would pay a living wage, which could support her and the children. Black male incarceration has done much to ensure that black female-headed households are now equal with poverty. Black male imprisonment also has much to do with rising black male unemployment rates. As these men re-enter the workforce they now likely have less skills than when they first entered prison. There are few, if any, programs, which train these men to effectively re-enter society. As jobs continue to move out further and further into the suburbs, these males, who are from the inner city, are left with few living wage employment options. The rates that convicts go back to jail are so high not because these men want to return to a life of crime but since few employment options are available, they tend to utilize their limited skills to get the money they need to survive. If more efforts do not make additional training available to these males that are realistically designed to help them obtain a living wage job, the rates that convicts go back to jail and black male unemployment will continue to increase.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Bound Together and the Issues on Globalization

Nayan Chanda (2007), on the book â€Å"Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization† describes the history of globalization as a process that has existed even during the early civilizations of the world. The book is divided into sections that narrated different stories about how traders, preachers, adventurers and warriors were able to initiate the process of globalization. As has been recognized by Chanda (2007), as early as human beings â€Å"migrated from Africa and dispersed throughout the world,† they have established various ways to reconnect with each other.For Chanda (2007) the process of globalization is synonymous to â€Å"interconnectedness and interdependence† which took place thousands of years ago. The story opens on the scenario where the writer and his wife arrived to New Haven, Connecticut and have an electrician to fix some electrical outlets at their new home. The electrician, named Jerry, asked Chanda about what he is doing at Yale. Chanda answered his question citing that he is working with the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Jerry's reaction to such answer was different because he have his negative perception about the word â€Å"globalization.† As Jerry uttered â€Å"Isn't it true that globalization destroys the rain forest? † (Chanda, 2007, p. ix). From this encounter, Chanda realized that indeed, the word globalization has earned different definitions and connotations which made it complicated and incomprehensible for many average individuals. Thus, Chanda's book â€Å"Bound Together: How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization† is a result of his personal quest for understanding the concepts related to globalization.It attempts to answer the questions: who are the globalizers and how does globalization originates. Looking at the history of civilization, Chanda (2007) begins his story of globalization on the journey of modern humans out from Africa fifty thousand years ago. The primary reason for relocating and reconnecting with other dispersed human communities grew out of the necessity for survival. The first chapters of the book narrate the stories of different group of people such as traders, preachers, adventurers, and warriors on how they manage to reconnect with other dispersed communities.From merely finding new trade route to the ambition of expanding their empires, these group of people were able to establish interconnectedness with other group of people, community, country and continents. Chanda (2007) also allocated a chapter explaining why the word â€Å"globalization† happened to be associated with negative meanings. From merely being synonymous to â€Å"interconnectedness of the world,† globalization is now being linked to the â€Å"destruction of the world. † Chanda (2007) was able to identify that the term â€Å"globalization† is being widely used a s early as 1960s. In fact, this word had been included in the English vocabulary in 1961.However, it was not until 1990s when such world had been recognized around the world. Chanda (2007) identified that the word started to gain negative connotation due to different economic problems that have spawned during the process of globalization. Chapter nine of the book talks about individuals, groups and organizations who are afraid of globalization. Although many countries have experienced economic growth and prosperity brought by rapid economic integration – being one of the process of globalization – there are some people who regarded globalization as a toxic and evil process.Some people from â€Å"Seattle to Cancun and Genoa to Hong Kong† were complaining about the â€Å"undemocratic institutions and unfair policies† associated with globalization (Chanda, 2007, p. 271). On final chapter of the book, Chanda (2007) provided a summary of the process of globali zation and have identified some problems that are likely to occur both in present time and the near future. Chanda (2007) identified that the speeding pace of globalization left behind many individuals and countries in the third world, as individuals and countries from develop world continues to progress.Globalization and Some Related Experiences Living in this modern world, no one is excused from experiencing both the positive and negative effects of globalization. Although Chanda (2007) was able to clearly define the pure meaning of globalization, being a process of interconnectedness and interdependence, the impact of globalization has been often perceived to be negative by many workers , immigrants, and inhabitants of poor countries like Africa. I happened to watch the movie â€Å"The Constant Gardener† which depicts the poor condition of African men, women and children.Some people belonging to the British High Commission transacted a business with one of the largest phar maceutical company in the United States, Karel Delacourt Hudson or much known as KDH. Part of the program of British High Commission and KDH is to launch a new discovered medicine that would cure individuals infected with AIDS/HIV. Although the intension is good, the program's process is evil. KDH chose Africa as the pilot â€Å"medical testing center† for Dypraxa, a newly invented medicine that would cure AIDS/HIV.A free medical mission was conducted in an African community with high prevalence of AIDS/HIV. Since the effectiveness of the medicine is still unknown, African women and children were treated as â€Å"testing rats† whose life seems not worthy if their body fails to respond according to what is expected. After a series of â€Å"medication† the effects of medicine turned out to be worse as many Africans died after taking the Dypraxa medicine. While the people of Africa are mourning for the death of their beloved, the pharmaceutical company owners conti nuously conduct their experiment.This only shows that there are capitalists and powerful people who prefer to utilize the marginalized group for their own advantage and economic good. Poor people who fall for the trap of capitalists are left with no choice but to comply accordingly with their orders, as these capitalists can manipulate or deny the poor access to their basic needs. Moreover, the film also shows how the governments of United States and Britain are being manipulated by some capitalists in order to become economically abundant.While the government wants to create jobs and to secure the health of its citizens, there are capitalists who would take advantage of a situation that would favor the economic interest of businessmen. Such is one of the unjust consequences of globalization. When advantaged people preferred to use â€Å"interconnectedness and interdependence† to gain economically even if the lives of marginalized individuals are at stake. As Chanda (2007) wr ote, â€Å"The paths of commerce are followed by diseases {and problems]; Africa and to some extent Latin America have been further impoverished as [other parts of the world] have been enriched†.Moreover, it is disheartening to see individuals who could not afford to eat even one good meal for a day; who could not have the opportunity to learn even how to read and write; who could not avail medical services; and who could not adapt on the rapid changes occurring around their simple environment. While other individuals, especially the capitalists and elitists, are enjoying the fruitful reward of globalization to their economic status, the marginalized people are suffering from poverty, hunger, diseases and illiteracy.Only few individuals from the marginalized sectors were able to survive and adapt on the past changes and developments brought by globalization. The struggles of small workers who are mostly from third world countries who are looking for a job that would give them better pay, especially in developed countries, are also alarming such that skilled migrants workers are not strongly secured when working outside their home country. I have met some skilled workers from other countries and was able to know some of their experiences.I came to discover that the globalization process enables them to work in other countries as international relations between countries allows the entry of workers in foreign land. However, with regard to security of tenure, living and benefits as worker, the process of globalization is still unable to guarantee good working conditions for migrant skilled workers. As Chanda (2007) noted, â€Å"Fair is the treatment of globalization, yet the sorry condition of Africa and other parts of the world does not quite fit in with the positive consequences attributed to globalization.† In addition, migration experiences like the experiences of traders and adventurers are good if such experience was able to satisfy the goal o f the migrating individual. Yet on some parts of the world, interconnectedness and interdependence are not perceived positively by some people. For them the process of globalization only permits the exploitation of the natural and human resources of one's country. As I have visited one of the countries in the third world, I feel unwelcome as some of the people out there are against Whites.They perceived Whites as the main actors of globalization and thus the only people who could benefit from such process. Like Jerry, I am often confused and being surprised everytime I do hear the word â€Å"globalization. † Due to past experiences and negative encounters with other groups of people, I came to perceive that globalization is an evil thing. Instead of uniting the people and countries around the world, globalization causes many individuals and countries to hate one another.Instead of interconnectedness and interdependence, some people, including me, perceive globalization as an instrument that would prevent connectedness and dependence to other countries due to unbalanced progress associated with globalization that is occurring on different parts of the world. As developed countries are continuously progressing, other countries are regressing such that poverty, diseases and other epidemic or phenomena brought by the collapse of a country's economy are negatively affecting marginalized citizens of a particular country.Poor and illiterate people are always identified as victims of unjust economy. Reflections on Chanda's Bound Together Upon reading Chanda's book â€Å"Bound together: How traders, preachers, adventurers, and warriors shaped globalization,† I have realized that indeed globalization is neither an evil word nor an unjust process. The history of globalization brought dispersed countries into a state of civilization and economic improvement.However, inevitable occurrences in economic system and the private interest of few powerful individual s altered the positive attributes of globalization, interconnectedness and interdependence. If all people, would only realize the benefits we could reap from becoming active agents of globalization, this process would not be hard and unjust. Globalization has indeed dominated most parts of the world. Many countries are now enjoying the fruits that came from exchanges of culture, knowledge, information, products, services, economic and social activities with others.Most relationships or interconnectedness with other countries permitted economic transactions that paved ways to product and services exchanges which in turn caused progress on both countries. If only the pure reason associated with ancient globalization could be improved and if only the process of globalization could better consider the marginalized, other people and countries would not hesitate to become cooperative with the process.In addition, if people could find better ways of adapting the changes associated with glo balization, the problem of velocity would not have taken its place. As Chanda (2007) wrote, â€Å"The big difference that marks globalization of the early years with that of the present are in velocity. Yet life in every country today is so inextricably intertwined with the rest of the world that failure to appreciate this interdependence and its long-term effects could risk the world's drifting toward a major crisis.† Since globalization is becoming increasingly inevitable, the only choice left for every people and country is to work towards the attainment of the globalization's objective: integration, interconnectedness and interdependence. Indeed, Chanda's book has enlightened me the real process and objective of globalization. Such that negative perceptions about globalization turned into a positive one. Moreover, the book helped me gain better understanding and futuristic view of globalization in this society.The progress of every country is still possible if globalizati on would be practiced in such a way that it would develop the economical, political and social relations of every country. Since globalization is inevitable, the only task left for every individual is to work towards development and progress for the betterment of everyone in the community and the world as a whole. References Chanda, N. (2007). Bound together: How traders, preachers, adventurers, and warriors shaped globalization. New Haven, Conn: Yale University Press. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Perfs. Ralph Fiennes, Rachel Weisz. (2005). The Constant Gardener.

Business Administration Level 2 NVQ Unit 1 Questions & Answers Essay

1.1 One of the key codes of practice, guidelines and procedures that are relevant to ones work is proper communication. Others are accepting responsibility for one’s own work and its delivery. Basically one should develop his/her own performance and act in a way that encourages effective working. 1.2 If you are an employee you are accountable to your employer. They have a right to see that your work is up to standard. You may also have a plan to fill in your working day. Companies have to work out costs, and one way to do this is too plan what work the employees will do. There is nothing wrong with this. Companies will charge out your time for each job. This is the norm for garages, engineers or any firm that has a contract rate for work. 1.3 If both sides agree then both sides are happy to fulfil their commitments. It also ensures that both sides understand the situation and what their targets are. 1.4 The targets must be realistic, so that the employee has a good chance of attaining them.  This lets him feel good about himself and allows him to work without stress.  If the targets are set too high, the employee will always be under pressure to do the impossible, will feel a failure and have a dissatisfied boss. 1.5 The first thing to do is to prioritize your work. That is, place the most important job at the top; the least, at the bottom. When judging priorities, you need to do several things: (1) you need to determine what is required. This is the number of jobs that need to be done. (2) You need to figure out what is required 1.6 It is important to keep other people informed about progress because it will helps them know the targets already achieved and what they are to  achieve. This will helps them set up their objectives in order to meet their targets. Furthermore, it avoids duplication of tasks and also promotes motivation among the team players. 1.7 Allows people to be better prepared for work, mentally, physically and tools-wise. It is respectful of the other person’s time to give him or her a good idea of what and how you want them to do something and when they need to start. If these plans change, respect demands that you inform others involved of the changes to these plans. 1.8 The types of problems that may occur during your work are: – computer crashing – work not getting saved – power cuts – photocopier runs out of toner – photocopier runs out paper. 1.9 The ways of seeking assistance with getting help to resolve problems is speaking to someone understanding e.g. Supervisor/Manager and explaining the situation to them in a polite and calm manor and finding a solution to the problem. 1.10 The purpose and benefits of recognising and learning from mistakes is realising in order not to make the same mistake again, taking the advice given as a learning curve and developing knowledge about something new and different.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Orientation Training Essay

Blanchard & Thacker (2010) describe how orientation can be described as the type of activities that an individuals or organization may seem most interested in and can give most attention. Orientation training can be described as training designed for newly hired employees to allow them to understanding the organizations operations. Also, orientation training give new employee’s opportunities to learn polices and procedures for making decision and activities of various units are coordinated. Orientation training can being with the socialization process with new employees and help the employee learn information about the organization and the values of the organization (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010). Orientations can be short or have longer approach dew to the kind of organizations the employees will be working for. The value of orientation training can with the how the learning theory prospective can be based on previous learning. New information can be interpret and understand in the context that is already know. Blanchard & Thacker (2010) show how successful organization can recognize the need for providing new employees with orientation training. They also view how new employees can use the organization and the first entry into the organization and whit will coming next tin the upcoming days in the organizations. The first view of the organization can be a lasting one and can important for organization to have good imaged an impression to chance the effectiveness the organization and new employees (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010). Another value of orientation training can be how employees who attend orientation training can be flexible to accepting the organizations goals and values. Orientations training can be effective with the use of the guidance that is provided to employees regarding manage ment expectations. Also orientations can be effective in reducing anxiety, reducing role ambiguity. In addition reducing turnover, improving job performance, providing high levels of commitment and can show the effective and efficient of the organizations (Blanchard & Thacker, 2010). In conclusion, orientation training is designed for new employees to allow them to understanding the organizations operations. Orientation training gives new employee’s opportunities to learn polices and procedures for making decision in the new organizations. Orientations training can be effective with the use of the guidance that it helps to provide to new employees regarding management expectations. References: Blanchard, N. P., & Thacker, J. (2010). Effective Training, System, Strategies and Practices (Custom 4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Liberal Education Essay

Essay Education is the most important factor behind the progress man has achieved in this world. It has been the permanent character of human history and evolution of thought. However, in the past, it used to be prerogative of only a few privileged men and the pace of development was quite slow. Since it has been disseminated to common people, there has been rapid growth in every sphere of development: science, technology, sociology, politics, anthropology, etc. Now it is treated as basic human right of every man. Though, it encompasses a wide sphere of knowledge, it has been metamorphosed by man according to his needs. It has been mainly applied as a tool of economic development, which has limited its application. Consequently, people are deprived of the potential education offers for the overall development of personality and stability of society. The chaos in modern world is also partly due to this fault. Therefore, in order to meet the multi-dimensional challenges, man faces in the world, it is essential to impart real education i. e. liberal education. The liberal education has been defined in many ways, though emphasizing the similar essential elements. The best definition is offered by the â€Å"Association of American Colleges and Universities†. â€Å"Liberal education means to empower an individual and prepare him to deal with diversity, complexity and change†. As manifest from the definition, the purpose of education is to enable man to surpass the challenges faced in the world, to know and obtain his rights and to accommodate himself in the constantly changing environment in the present day competitive world. The importance of liberal education in this contemporary globalised world is greatest than ever before. The world has become so shaped that every economic and social activity requires modern and advanced means of communication and technology. The transformation of technological development is on a very fast track. There is a demand of more interactive and communica tive manpower to run this complex system. Moreover, despite the interdependence on each other, the diversity in different areas is in sharp contrast. Hence, the man is required to be quite sufficiently prepared to move forward. And the instrument that can enable him to face these challenges is nothing but liberal education. This is why the renowned scholar â€Å"Skarnovey† says: â€Å"Liberal education: the developing countries must adopt it as it is a necessity†. Nevertheless, it is essential for every nation but the developed countries are already ahead in this sphere. The developing countries, which are still far behind, need to forge efforts to transform their education system in order to catch up with the rest of the world. Not only because it helps in achieving economic development but also because it fulfills the need of society in every sphere of life. The sphere of liberal education is wide enough to call it real education. Basically, education is aimed to develop whole being of a person. It is necessary to educate man to learn social ethics, cultural values, religious obligations, ways and means of a stable society and skills of professional competitiveness. Liberal education, simply, fulfills all these essential needs. It emphasises the development of a citizen who is professionally capable of living in the society in civilised way – the way which is not only beneficial to himself alone, but also fruitful for other members of his family, community and society. It is best elaborated in the words of Kurth Kahin; â€Å"Liberal education teaches something about everything and everything about something†. His words can be best understood by contrast to the maxim â€Å"Jack of all; master of none†. Simultaneously, there are also people who are â€Å"Jack of none but master of one†. The people, who acquire general education without proficiency in any specific subject, are explained by the first maxim. While some people who are very skilled and highly qualified in one field like an engineer, scientist or doctor but do not know any other subject or field of life; these are referred to the latter assumption. However, liberal education is a moderate way between both the polar positions. It is aimed at making a person ‘a good professional in any one field’ and also to ‘possess knowledge and skills about other important fields’. More importantly, it makes constructive members of society better described as â€Å"Jack of all; master of one†. In such a way, the objectives of liberal education are multifaceted, which address the requirement of society to a considerable extent. These objectives are briefly discussed here: Firstly, it is the most important for a man to be an informed citizen. The people who are concerned only with their single professional field of occupation cannot be ideally good citizens. They would only be members and nationals of a community or nation. A good citizen is required to be participatory in the social and political building of community, which is the foundation of any society. As the actions of man are based on information and knowledge, without these none understands the obligation towards community and resultantly remains inactive member of society. However, but if the students are inculcated the knowledge of their needs and roles, they would be quite prepared to foresee occurrences and would direct their thoughts and actions towards social and political participation. This can be achieved when the system of education is made liberal which does not aspire to produce only technical robots in human shape but informed and good citizens. Secondly, the philosophy of liberal education envisages the development of creative thinking among the students. Creative thinking has acquired fundamental place in the education system of advanced countries. The students are encouraged to â€Å"think a new†. The creative experiments, creative writings and creative art lead to frame the development of thought process. Though, it is practised in western countries, it owes its origin to the most influential scholars and artists of Greek period and early Muslim era. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Ibn-e-Khaldun, Galileo, Khuw-arzmi, Newton, to name a few, all were creative thinkers. In short, whole of the development in the world and education itself is the result of creative thinking. On the contrary, the limited application of education is insufficient to produce brilliant minds. The specific technological development devoid of human values and ethics has failed to form the basis of a viable society. Thus, it is the objective of liberal education to teach the students various subjects like history, sociology, philosophy and psychology besides their professional field, so that creative thought is encouraged to be developed among them. Therefore, we need to introduce liberal education in order to secure our future based on collective ideals. Thirdly, liberal education improves the skills and competitiveness of students, which is necessary to enable them to get foothold in the competitive market. For example a typist may have good efficiency in his field but computers have replaced typewriter. People like to get their papers typed on computer in order to save their document and to get good command. Now, the excellent typist is in trouble, he would go jobless in the market unless he learns to operate computer. Same is the case with every field of employment. The modes of technology are being transformed very rapidly. In order to meet the demands of market one should be quite prepared and skilled. Hence, the knowledge of mathematics, science, computer literacy and technological acquaintance are necessary to be imparted to the students, which can be achieved through liberal education. Fourthly, as the world has become a global village, the importance of communication skills has been increased manifold. A person must be proficient in national and at least one international language. He must know how to send e-mail, voice-mail or to carryout visual communication. The social change compels the person to change the job for better opportunities. The talented people feel an urge to move towards other countries as well in order to actualise their talent and to obtain maximum result. This is where the communication skills are mostly required. All the communication techniques, basically, listening, speaking and writing are essential ingredients. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the skills of students through methods of listening comprehension and speaking ability tests. All the examinations of foreign languages comprise these elements and even very talented students from developing countries fail to go abroad due to lack of these communication skills in international languages. The world has become so shaped that every economic and social activity requires modern and advanced means of communication and technology. The transformation of technological development is on a very fast track. These few objectives of liberal education underline its importance and need in the developing countries, including Pakistan. Unfortunately, it has not been taken seriously. The system of education in our country is obsolete. It is devoid of the contemporary methodology of teaching and the curriculum is almost from primary to university level. Computer is studied as a field of study only, not as a skill. Even in most of the universities it is taught only to the students of computer department seeking degree in that subject, let alone its use at primary and secondary level. In universities the students of other subjects like sociology, languages, arts and other sciences are not taught the computer skills. This lags them far behind from students of other countries and few quality institutes of the country. Same is true of languages. English though introduced from primary level, is not taught according to the modern techniques of comprehension. Only reading lessons and knowing meaning of words cannot enable students to master the language. The methodology of English departments in universities is also in question. The national language, Urdu, is also not focused at any level of education. Learning of both these languages is important to produce capable and competitive students at the national and international level. The fate of the students of other subjects is also not much different. On the one hand, they are deprived of computer and language skills; on the other they do not become proficient in their field of interest as the proper methodology is not applied. Faculty members are not well qualified, research is not pursued and creative thought is ignored. These defects of our education system are the main reasons of the chaos, unemployment, poverty and social instability in our society. In order to overcome these shortcomings, we must adopt the liberal education system without any further delay. However, this requires a well thought out and comprehensive policy to improve the existing education system. Primarily, we should redesign our curriculum at all levels. All the major components/subjects of liberal education: sociology humanism, citizenship, history, philosophy, languages, computer and sciences must be introduced in every tier of education from primary to university levels in accordance with the capacity of students and the needs of society. Secondarily, all the institutions should be equipped with computer and scientific laboratories and libraries. The research and creative thinking should be encouraged through modern techniques of education. In this regard the accessibility and equality of all sections of our stratified society must be ensured in order to achieve uniform development. Lastly, the faculty must be energised by providing skilled and experienced teachers. The existing teachers should be trained to equip them with modern techniques of teaching methodology. Fresh and young blood must be encouraged to join education field as a profession by enhancing the monetary incentives in the education sector. This policy will yield tremendous benefits to the future of a nation. The liberal education is hailed because it brings concrete advantages. The young generation of Pakistan makes bulk of the population of country. According to a report of the State Bank of Pakistan 65 per cent of the educated youth is unemployed due to irrelevance of their skills with market. If this portion of population is properly skilled, it will prove to be a boost to the economy as the manpower is considered a resource in all countries of the world. Another benefit would be the eradication of poverty. Once our youth are employed, they will naturally add to the income of their families and consequently eradicate their poverty. It will also help in raising the living standard of our common man as it is directly proportional to the income of a family. The liberal education would create sense of understanding and cooperation among the people. The contemporary chaos of extremism and isolationism are due to lack of approach towards collective interests and common goals among people. Once they realise their social obligations and think creatively they will initiate participating positively in the stability of society. It is quite clearly manifested from the discussion that liberal education, which is the real education, is an essential component of good governance and stable society. It not only helps an individual to progressively achieve goals but also gives impetus to economic, political and social stability to a state. In short, it forms the basis of human development in this complex global world of diversity and challenges. It offers a way towards a better change.

Friday, September 13, 2019

E105 - Born to be a Genius Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

E105 - Born to be a Genius - Essay Example These all are names of dogs in different language, though, it can be said that language is a combination of symbol that allows to represent an object or a doing work. Steven Pinker, a psycholinguist at MIT and director of its Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, has researched on languages in full depth and wrote a book named â€Å"The language Instinct†. He emerges his research in this book giving the basic idea with different practical examples that language is an instinct that is filled in human brain through biological evolution. He concludes from his research that instinct like language is emerged in childhood as a result of his brain growth. He researched species like birds, apes and chimpanzees to learn human languages and signals. In general language is totally a different instinct that depends upon the brain growth and comes from inheritance. He researched on different toddlers besides birds, dolphins and apes how they learn and found the instinct in DNA inherited. Autism is that they are unable to filter out relevant information from trivial information, which results in an overflow of input to the brain. They dont seem to lack the necessary semantic representations; they just have trouble calling up the appropriate interpretation. I.e.; they don’t fluently speak, can’t sing, and never interested what others think and repetitious for no apparent reason. It is a difficult challenge for parents and teachers to make these children run. These children as are good at verbal activities they made to learn things carefully by their best intact, i.e., making them work. For Example, a boy can be learned nicely by asking them to hammer the legs of chair and screw the legs of table thrice a time in a manner that child don’t minds doing it and do it pleasantly. The children may be copped in a way that might often their education get neglect but still they learn well. They are to be taught to have understanding

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Business Ethics and Virtue Ethics Research Paper

Business Ethics and Virtue Ethics - Research Paper Example The code was founded in order for the companies to eliminate the awful culture portrayed by fellow companies and industries of unfairly low wages to their workers, long working hours and unsafe working environment, which may lead to the threat of the workers safety. The putting into action of the global manufacturing principles seemed to a stiff step for the Mattel toy company because it lead to the growth of more challenges in the company. This paper will use the virtues of honesty, temperance, and generosity amongst their workers in order to solve the problems facing the Mattel toy company. The company faces the following issues working conditions, worker safety, fairness, and organizational attitudes towards the environment. According to researchers in the field of ethical standards in companies, they suggest that it is important on how the companies recruit workers who posses good ethical virtues to their respective companies. This is conducted in order to make it definite that t he relevant company will grow to develop its goal and vision to the benefit of the company and the public (Sethi, Veral et al. 2011). Honesty The term honesty refers to the virtue by which a person can be said to be frank and truthful to the public. It can also be expressed as the act of a person being free from any fraud activity. The existence of honesty in a company will affect positively the working conditions, the level of organizational attitude and the safety of the working parties in the company. On the point of improving and maintaining, the working conditions will be effective in the Mattel toy company by making sure that employees of the company enjoy working with the company. This would be possible when the leaders of the company take into heart the virtue of honesty into their own heart and duties. The accumulation of the virtue will enable them to present the bad working conditions of their juniors to the management board of the company in a lawful way. This will help in making sure that the funds allocated to them after presenting the issues will be well spent in the favor of improving the working conditions of the employees. The presence of having leaders in a company who have the virtue of telling the truth in a company will be crucial for the company because the employees can copy the good ethic standard of being honest. This will help because the employees will conduct their duties in an honest manner, which will benefit the Mattel toy company a lot (Sethi, Veral et al. 2011). In some cases, managers in companies do not portray the virtue of honesty towards their employees in terms of the level of income. This is evident when the managers take the advantage of their hierarchy of authority in the companies to mistreat the workers by paying them low salary levels, which is against the set agreement based by the employee and the management board. This makes the working environment unfavorable for the workers. These experiences of employees in o ther companies drives the main motive of the Mattel toy company to set the new code of ethics in which the working conditions of the employees in the company are meet with strict action in regardless of their power and authority in the company. The working conditions expected to be addressed by the global manufacturing principles in the ethical code include the amount expected to be paid to each worker is reviewed after a certain

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Proper oils, proposals to improve in all the segments of their company Essay

Proper oils, proposals to improve in all the segments of their company - Essay Example Key Words Biodiesel, Cooking oil. Introduction A SWOT analysis of the company reveals crucial points regarding the company’s market position. The following is the detailed SWOT analysis. Strengths The company has increased in size which means stronger bargaining power over supplies. The company has employed a strong marketing campaign. The company has a motivated team that comprise of 6 people. The team provides reliable and professional service to the company. The company has also adopted a new database system that will be used to manage customer data. The company has also set to increase awareness through redesigning the company with brand and more involvement in the social media. This will create recognition for the company and its products (Kerin 2012).The company has also made liaison with a local company. This will facilitate exchange of ideas between the two companies. The company has set to increase the fleet of vehicles and hence improve delivery of raw materials and products to the market. Opportunities The world consumption of biodiesel is growing and hence this presents a perfect investment opportunity. According to a world report, this growth has been driven by government mandates, tax incentives and the need for energy independence (Fredrick 2012). Cooking oil consumption is also high. The new database system is set to significantly increase the number of customers. Redesigning and branding is set to win back old customers and improve services. The company is relatively new in the market hence it still have potential for growth as it is yet to maximize production. The company can be able to increase productivity through use of new vehicles. The company has the potential to grow through making acquisitions. Weaknesses The company has placed more focus on production of cooking oil at the expense of biodiesel. If the cooking oil products does not bring in the expected revenue the company may face financial difficulties. Brand failure is also a potential weakness for the company. For example, biodiesel produced by the company does not attract a profitable margin. Increase in price of the raw material is also a major challenge facing the company. The company is currently spending a lot on caterers for oil. Loss of customers is also a weakness for the company. There is lack of a reward system. This may make customers feel less valued (Subramanian & Sanjoy 2003). Security is also a major challenge. Threats Competition from other companies has been identified as a major threat facing the company. The local supply of biodiesel in the European market has tremendously grown. The industry is already suffering from overproduction (Thurmond 2008). There is lack of adequate finances to expand production and carry out promotions. The market for cooking fat is saturated by other brands from rival companies. Low margins from biodiesel sales are also a major threat facing the company. Production is also limited to the available used coo king oil that can be collected. A series of failed advertising attempts has also been a major threat. The company’s current situation may not be termed as severe. However, certain issues are eminent from the above analysis which may negatively affect the performance of the company. Key among these issues is the lack of a proper advertising mechanism that could see the company gain more customers. There is little communication between the customers and the company. This may not be effective in retaining customers and creating loyalty. The company is

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Requiring students to pass a standardized test to receive a high Essay

Requiring students to pass a standardized test to receive a high school diploma will not improve the educational standards or academic achievement in our school - Essay Example They will be enabled to assess the suitability of the student who had applied for admission into undergraduate or graduate degree programs (Standardized Tests, 2006). Twenty – two states of the Union have implemented such exit examinations and there is a proposal in four more states to follow suit. Critics have opined that implementing exit examinations in schools would not be beneficial to children from low income group families. Controversy surrounds these exit examinations. Thus, the state of Maryland postponed its examinations schedule for two years. The state Board of Education is keenly reviewing the date regarding implementation of exit examinations. However, proponents of exit examinations claim that the tests would improve the quality of education and contribute to the achievement of higher goals (Toppo). An improvement in the amount of time expended on various subjects was discerned in high school graduation. For instance, in the year 2005, sixty – eight percent of high school graduates had studied English for four years and mathematics, science and social studies for three years. This is a laudable feat and is higher than that of the year 1990, wherein only forty percent of the students had graduated in the core subjects. According to the results of a federal study, in the year 2005, fifty – one percent of students had taken college preparatory work, which had been only thirty – one percent in the year 1990 (Toppo). According to Russlyn Ali of the Education Trust West, an advisory group in Oakland, most of the children in the USA graduated without acquiring basic knowledge and skills. This was established in the federal study. Moreover, that study had disclosed that the average high school senior student was unable to read fluently and lacked basic skills. In addition, Jack Jennings of the Center on Education Policy,

Monday, September 9, 2019

Multi-faceted role of the teacher Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Multi-faceted role of the teacher - Essay Example Educators design curriculum to help them set learning paths for their students. This noble task has been attempted repeatedly and in various contexts in the hopes of improving curriculum. It can be said that educators always work towards a curriculum that empowers the learner. It would greatly benefit him and future generations to come. Curriculum comprises the whole school programme. It covers a broad spectrum - from how the physical environment is designed, which skills are targeted to be developed in the children, which concepts and activities are appropriate for the age group, what are the routines to be included and how one transitions from one activity to another. Marsh (2004) defines curriculum as a variety of learning experiences where students gain general skills and obtain knowledge in different learning sites. This definition concentrates more on learning and learning skills rather than teaching. It also values the practical skills gained from other learning sites other than from school alone. Grundy (1987) in his definition describes curriculum as ‘A programme of activities (by teachers and pupils) designed so that pupils will attain so far as possible certain educational and other schooling ends or objectives’ (Grundy, 1987, p.11). It is evident that any curriculum definition one way or another puts emphasis on the learning process, gained knowledge and skills, subject content and students’ comprehensive learning experience. In designing an appropriate course curriculum, an essential process needs to be considered including which curriculum model is most suitable for the needs of the learner. The process of learning is as important as the content learned (Newby 2005). Constructivist theory is gaining more attention, recognition and acceptance in many educational institutions. Its curriculum premises on the belief that learners â€Å"construct† their own

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Hammerhead Sharks Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hammerhead Sharks - Research Paper Example The characteristic hammer shaped head of these ocean predators is called cephalofoil and is the reason why they are called hammerhead sharks. The nostrils and eyes are located at the tip of the extensions. All hammerhead sharks belong to the genus Sphyrna. There are nine identified species of Hammerhead shark and all have the characteristic projections on both sides of the head. The largest Hammerhead species, the Great Hammerhead shark, can grow up to 20 feet in length and weigh up to 1,000 pounds, although smaller sizes are more common (National Geography). The smallest of this species is the Bonnethead, which can reach an average length of 3-4 feet and can weigh up to 24 pounds (University of Florida). Cephalofoil: Structural Variations There are two main theories regarding the development of the cephalofoil. Some scientists believe that the shape evolved gradually over numerous generations, while others suggest that it was a sudden mutation that rapidly proved to be an advantage (Aquatic Community). The shape of the cephalofoil has been found to vary considerably among the various species of Hammerhead sharks. The great hammerhead has a cephalofoil that is broad and nearly flat across the front, with a single shallow notch in the center. The scalloped hammerhead is arched more and has a pronounced center notch with two matching notches on either side, giving it a scalloped appearance. The smooth hammerhead is smooth with no notches but a slight broad arch. The cephalofoil of a bonnethead is rounded at the front and resembles a shovel more than a hammer. Function of Cephalofoil Researchers are not sure about the function of cephalofoil in hammerhead sharks, but they have a few theories, some of which hold up well under research. The prominent theories which have been tested are listed below: 1. Enhanced binocular field In this study, scientist hypothesized that one of the main features of the cephalofoil is to enhance frontal binocularity (McComb et al. 4010 ). As part of this study, they compared the visual fields of three hammerhead species: the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) and the winghead shark (Eusphyra blochii) with the visual field of two carcharhinid species: the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) and the blacknose shark (Carcharhinus acronotus). Scientists also quantified the eye rotation and head yaw of these sharks in order to determine if species compensate for large blind areas anterior to the head. The study revealed that the winghead shark possessed the largest anterior binocular overlap which was nearly four times larger than that of the lemon and blacknose sharks (McComb 4013). The binocular overlap in the scalloped hammerhead sharks was greater than the bonnethead sharks and carcharhinid species (McComb et al. 4013). However, the bonnethead shark did not differ from the carcharhinids (McComb et al. 4013). The hammerhead species did not demonstrate greater eye rota tion in the anterior or posterior direction. However, both the scalloped hammerhead and bonnethead sharks exhibited greater head yaw during swimming than the lemon and blacknose sharks, indicating a behavioral compensation for the anterior blind area (McComb et al. 4013). The results indicate that hammerhead species have larger binocular overlap compared to the carcharhinid sharks which is consistent with the ‘enhanced binocular field’ hypothesis. 2. Head Morphology Scientists have conducted a comparative morphology test to determine if the sphyrnid cephalofoil offers better stereo-olfaction, increases olfactory acuity and samples a greater volume of the medium compared to the carcharhiniform sharks (Kajiura et al., Morphology 253). The broadly spaced nares provides significantly greater separation between the

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Global Warming Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 6

Global Warming - Essay Example Scientific reports claim that the very origin of global warming was somewhere in mid-20th century. They argue that that during and around 1970s, environmental degradation was on the rise. The rise in degradation resulted in huge concentration of carbon in the atmosphere which eventually rose into a universal issue. With different agencies and organizations such as United Nations Environmental Program and Intergovernmental for Climate Change all scrambling for the publicity brought about by global warming, the issue soon scaled to an international problem. Skeptical science, however, disagrees with this claim, arguing that environmental degradation and global warming are natural and can only be stopped through natural practices.Scientific reports claim that the very origin of global warming was somewhere in mid-20th century. They argue that that during and around 1970s, environmental degradation was on the rise. The rise in degradation resulted in huge concentration of carbon in the a tmosphere which eventually rose into a universal issue. With different agencies and organizations such as United Nations Environmental Program and Intergovernmental for Climate Change all scrambling for the publicity brought about by global warming, the issue soon scaled to an international problem. Skeptical science, however, disagrees with this claim, arguing that environmental degradation and global warming are natural and can only be stopped through natural practices.   Media, organizations and agencies use conflicting ideas. The conflicting ideas merge into one to create a problem. Giving different data about the same information all from reputable sources, for instance stirs restlessness. People tend to look for more information in this case. In the midst of the confusion of looking for a new idea, people easily believe whatever is talked more about and that has direct effects on them. For instance, as the IPCC report 2013 claim that global warming reduced amicably, skeptica l science argues that the decade between 2000 to2009 was the hottest. People believed IPCC since the arguments from skeptical science did not directly affect their health.Global warming can just be an avenue through which the whole environmentalists strive to keep standard environmental conditions.